What do you know about Ghana? Is it a french speaking country? What French speaking countries exist in the world?
What is Ghana? Can it be named a French speaking country? Apparently not, because there are dozens other languages in Ghana, which can be named official, but neither of them is French. Ghana is located in the West Sub-region of Africa. The Land Mass of Ghana is estimated around 239 thousand square kilometres. The territory of today’s Ghana has been inhabited by more than one millennia. The first permanent state that was provided in Ghana was in the eleventh century. In the 15th century, many European powers used the territory of Ghana for their trade purposes. That`s how they started their knowledge of languages.
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The vast majority of the country`s population is represented by Black Africans. Their amount in the country is about 98%. Nevertheless, Ghana Africa is multiethnic country. The largest Ethnic group in Ghana is Ashanti people. The territory of Ghana was unoccupied up until the 10th century BC by humans and the first permanent civilisation that occupied the territory of Ghana was represented in the 10th century AD. Guans were the first settlers to come into this territory. Akans came to this land much later and established their kingdom Bonoman. They joined the settlers who were there in the 16th century.
According to today`s population religion raging in Ghana, it can be noticed that the population is divided into several groups. Around 72% percent of Ghanaian, people are Christians, the largest percent of Christians are Pentecostal that provides 28%. Other big parts of Christians are Protestants, which takes over 19%. The third large group of Christians are Catholics; they provide around 13% percent of the population. Other Christians are considered to provide around 11% of the population. Another major religion in the country is Islam. Muslims are provided with 17% percent of the population. There are 51% of Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya and around 8% of Shia.
According to the data from 2014, there are more than 375 thousand skilled workers or foreign workers registered in Ghana. According to the history data, in the first post-colonial years – the population of Ghana consisted of 6,7 million people, where today`s population is about 27 million people. The median age for the citizen of Ghana is about 30 years old. The average household size takes around 3,6 persons. The Governmental language of Ghana`s States and the official language of Ghana is English. This language is spoken by more than 68% of the population.
According to the data from 2010, the population of Ghana was consisted of 24,2 million people. The most populated regions at that time were The Ashanti Region with 4,7 million people. Other regions with population were distributed in the next order, like 4 million people in the seat of government in Greater Accra, which was administratively separated on July 1982. 2.3 million people were placed in Brong-Ahafo, 2,3 million in the western region, 2,6 million in Eastern region and 2,2 million in Central region. According to the data of 2010, more than 2,1 million persons reside in Ewe territory.
Legal and Illegal Immigration
Due to the recent immigration policy of the government, skilled workers from many parts of the world came to Ghana. These people came from China, Malaysia, India, Middle East and Europe. These people usually pose Ghana Cards which provides the ability to work in Ghana legally.
Nevertheless, Illegal Immigration is also quite a problem for Ghana Immigration Service. According to the data from 2010, the number of illegal immigrants and economic migrants provided in Ghana were about 15%. It resembles around 3 million of people. These illegal migrants usually were Malian citizens, Togolese citizens, Burkinabe citizens and Nigerians.
Languages in Ghana
Is Ghana French speaking country? Currently, it`s not true as eleven languages got government-sponsored status and French is not one of them. These languages are Akan ethnic languages, like Nzema, Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi and Mfantse. Two languages are Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages, like Dagbanli and Dagaare. Other languages supported by the government are Kasem, Gonja, Ga, Dangme and Ewe. The most usable language in Ghana is the English language. It`s used as lingua franca. It can usually be seen on TV screens. It`s also used in business and politics for the government.
Fertility and reproductively in Ghana
Fertility rates in Ghana declined from the beginning of 2000, where the average rates of persons for one household were around 3,99. At the beginning of 2010s, the fertility rate dropped up to 3,28 persons per household. Nevertheless, the population of Ghana keeps booming, but the price is too high. The overall medical and health situation in Ghana is drastic. Around 4% of women had to undergo female genital mutilation in Ghana. This practice has been illegal in the Country.
French is incredibly popular language in the world. It might be possible that people think about French only when they think about France. They can also name few countries, like Canada or African French speaking countries that might speak French. Nevertheless, French is the incredibly popular language which is spoken in more than fifty countries. It`s counted about 118 million people for whom French is a mother tongue. It can be counted more than 260 million people for whom French is used as the second and third tongue.
Therefore, to the question “Is Ghana French speaking country?” The answer is no, but there are more French-speaking countries on the world map that you might now! Look at the list of French-speaking countries!
Canada is a fully bilingual country which uses English and French languages at the same time. These languages are native for people of 60% and 20% respectively. According to the last data of languages from Canada on 2015, about 7 million people listed non-official languages as their native languages. The most common non-native language for people is Cantonese with around one million Chinese people who spoke it. Other major languages can be included as Spanish with around 410 thousand people, German with around 409 thousand people and Italian with 407 thousand people. Around 57 percent of the population use the English language for their daily life, where 22% use only French for their daily life. Around 15% of people in Canada use English and French languages for daily life.
The Republic of Haiti is a sovereign state in the Northern Hemisphere in North America. There two official languages of Haiti. It includes Haitian Creole and French. According to statistics, the French language is called administrative and government language and is spoken by 42% of citizens of Haiti. It`s spoken by most of Haiti educated people. It`s used in education, politics and business sector of the country. It can also be used during ceremonial events, like wedding ceremonies, graduation speeches or church masses. The other language is called Haitian Creole and can be spoken by the entire population of Haiti. French-based Creole language is derived from the French language on 90%. Nevertheless, the grammar of the language is quite different and comes from the influence of Spanish, Portuguese, Taino and West African languages.
Belgium has three official languages, which include German, Dutch and French. Nevertheless, numbers of minorities can speak their native languages. According to the statistics, around 60% of Belgium citizens speak Dutch, and the other part speaks French 40%. The first group of people who prefer speaking Dutch are called Flemish, where the group of people who prefer speaking French are Walloons. Most Dutch-speaking citizens are concentrated in the Northern Flanders region, and their estimate population is around 6.23 million. French speakers are concentrated in Wallonia, and their numbers are estimated around 3.32 million. There is also vast German speaking community with more than 80 000 German speakers. Nevertheless, the country can be divided by language preference as the part of the country which speaks French has quarrels with Dutch-speaking part of the country.
How can it be written about French-speaking countries without France? The French law enforcements do not regulate publications of individuals using the French language, but French is required for business, administration, commercial and workplaces. France tries to promote the French language in the European Union and other countries through the institutions, like La Francophonie. They try to perceive their position of French language in the world as Anglicization is a much more popular trend for today. France was a country with many colonies all around the world. Moreover, French language was once spoken as an international language for commerce and trade. Nevertheless, after WWII it becomes more obvious that English language takes all the positions.
There are three languages which can be recognised as official in Luxemburg. It`s French, German and Luxembourgish. Apart from the official languages spoken in the country, Luxembourg recognizes as the national language the language of Grand Duchy. It`s called the language of the heart for citizens of Luxemburg. In addition to the three languages, another world primarily languages, like English is used in the daily life. Moreover, it`s used for compulsory education in all the schools. According to statistics, around 95% of Luxembourg citizens can speak English. Another language that is totally used in this country is Portuguese. It came to Luxembourg with immigrants. Luxemburg is a French speaking country, where official legislation must be conducted in French language.
It`s one of the safest places in the world, and it`s also considered as one of the most beautiful countries of the world. It`s no surprise as, despite the small territory of the Kingdom, this country is considered to be one of the richest. The official language of Monaco is French. All legislation processes are provided in this language. Nevertheless, Monaco citizens frequently use another language for daily speaking, like Italian, German, English or Dutch. The traditional national language of Monaco is called Monegasque. This language is also used in daily conversation. Moreover, in Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both languages Monegasque and French. Still, French is still considered the most usable language as more than 80% of newspapers and media use French.
It`s one of the richest countries in the world. It`s also one of the French-speaking countries. According to the last official data, Switzerland has four official languages. It includes the German language, which is principally spoken by the majority of the population with 64 percent of the population. The second major language spoken by the 22,5% of the population is French. The third major language is Italian 8%, and the fourth is Romansh, which is spoken by 0,5%. According to the recent data considered with the languages, French language keeps losing its positions in Switzerland. The previous data of 2013 considered with languages, provided the official numbers, like for 23% of population French was a language of daily life. Therefore, for three years, French lost about 0,5% of its people.
As it derives from the name of the country, French is the one and only official language in this country. Nevertheless, as it comes from the law regulations of Polynesia, French and other languages can be used as daily basis languages. According to the statistical data taken in 2007, 69% of young people of French Polynesia provided the information that French is the most spoken language they use at home. 24% of young people use Tahitian language as their home language. Other languages are Marquesan, Tuamotuan, Austral languages and Chinese. French language is still used as an official language for law enforcements. Moreover, French Polynesia still connected with France and France enforcements. The education is also connected with France as students from French Polynesia to France.
The national language of the Republic of Vanuatu is Bislama. The other official languages of Vanuatu are also French and English. The principal languages for studying in Vanuatu are French and English. The use of these languages is split into political lines and uses. Bislama is a pidgin language. Bislama is the only language which can be understood by the majority of the population in the country. Moreover, Bislama is always called as the second language in the country. Moreover, there are more than one hundred languages spoken in Vanuatu. Therefore, this is one of French speaking countries that needs French as lingua franca. Nevertheless, France also provides help to the country with studying French language.
It`s another French speaking country, where French language is starting spreading with the first settlements in this part of the world. Nevertheless, the level of fluency varies within the population. This problem comes from the issues of achievement in the primary education for people. According to the data provided in 2009, 97% of the population of New Caledonia can speak, write and read in French. There are also other languages widely spoken in this country. Nevertheless, French language is considered to be as lingua franca for people working and having business in this country. Moreover, it`s an official language of press and media as well as laws and politics. Still, due to an economic situation within the country and problems with primary education – many people use their native language for daily life and speaking with each other.
Iles de Hoorn
These two islands can still work out their part as France. French is the official language there. It should also be memorable that these islands do not claim any independence and still regulated by France despite their distance from the country. Many other languages are also spoken in that part of the country. Nevertheless, French language can be the only one that provided by business there. If people have a desire to make any workable contacts with these two islands, it`s necessary to work in French language. Still, people there also study English language at schools. More than 90 percent of the population of these islands recognise French as their mother tongue. Almost all people on these islands can read, write and speak French.
French-speaking countries in Africa
It`s the small African Republic that previously was a colony of France. Togo can be called a multilingual country with more than 39 languages spoken there. Moreover, two indigenous languages are provided to be political and national languages of the country. These languages are Ewe and Kabiye. French language is used as a formal language for commerce, administration and education purposes. Ewe can be considered as the language of wider communication on the South of the country. Officially Ewe and Kabiye are two languages that used in politics and commercial work. They are also widely used in media and newspapers.
It`s one of the French-speaking countries in Africa. Two official languages used alongside Seychellois Creole language. These languages are English and French. Nevertheless, Seychellois Creole is used in French language. Nevertheless, France continues to help its former colonies. Therefore, for people of these countries, it`s provided new levels of Education and even special education programs in France. French and English languages are both widely used in politics and other public discussions. It includes media discussion on TV. There are also widely printed in newspapers and magazines. Moreover, for some people of the country English and French languages are considered to be native languages.
Senegal is another French-speaking country in Africa. French language is an official language of Senegal. It`s also widely incorporated into the education system of the country. Nevertheless, it`s used by a minority of citizens of this country as a daily language. Most people use other minor languages for daily conversation. One of the most used languages in Senegal for daily conversation is Wolof. It`s especially used in Dakar as the lingua franca. Other languages spoken by people includes Pulaar, which is spoken by the Toucouleur and Fulas. Other languages widely spoken in the country are Serer language, Cangin languages. It can also be possible to found Portuguese Creole language as Senegal was also a country for merchants from Portugal. French is the only official language that used here in media, politics and business.
The principal language of Rwanda is called Kinyarwanda, which is spoken by the majority of Rwandans. Nevertheless, Rwanda was a colony for many European countries. Therefore, some parts of languages of these countries are still presented in Rwanda. These languages include German and French. Even today there are people in Rwanda who can call their mother languages as German and French. These two languages were introduced to Rwanda by Belgium. French language is widely used in the country for commercial and business sectors. It`s quite possible that politics of the country use this language in the political debates. Moreover, newspapers and media also use French language for spreading information. Rwanda Education also provides English language as for the second language studying.
The Republic of Congo
It`s another French Speaking African country. Congolese people use French language for daily conversation between people. It`s also widely used for politics and law enforcements. Moreover, due to the long period of colonial era for Congo – French language has become the language of trades and everything connected with commercial issues. Nevertheless, what is more important, is that national languages of Congo also continue to develop.
It`s a French-speaking country in Africa. French is inherited by Niger from the colonial era. Nevertheless, it`s called as an official language in this country. Still, it`s mainly spoken as a second language by people. These people mostly have a formal western education and receive their posts in the administrative sector. Therefore, this language is widely used by an administrative sector of the country. According to the recent data, Niger has ten official national languages. These languages are Fulfulde, Hausa, Kanuri, Cebu, Arabic, Tassawaq, Songhai, Zarma, Buduma, Tamasheq. Each of these languages is spoken as primarily by one ethnic.
The official language of Mali is French. Nevertheless, there are more than forty languages spoken in Mali. Most of them are presented by various ethnic groups. According to the constitution of Mali, there are twelve national languages. These languages include Xaasongaxango, Tamasheq, Syenara Senoufo, Koyraboro Senni, Soninke, Manikakan, Mamara Senoufo, Hassaniya Arabic, Maasina Fulfulde, Toro So Dogon, Tieyaxo Bozo, Bomu, Bambara and French.
The official language of Madagascar is the Malagasy language. It comes from Malayo-Polynesian origins. This language is spoken through the island. There are also numerous dialects of the language. Non-official languages of Madagascar were recorded into the constitution of the country. Nevertheless, Malagasy was chosen as the defined national language. Still, many people prefer to use both languages as national languages. It includes French and Malagasy at the same time. Up to the beginning of the 2000s, every media and every news press in Madagascar were printed in French. People started a line of protests that provided the claim that everything in the country should be written not only in French. Therefore, since 2000s Malagasy started its using. After 2007, the new constitution provided a line of new languages for the country. It included French, Malagasy and English.
It`s another African country, where French language is presented as an official language. Nevertheless, there are more than 65 languages in this country. Still, French language is provided and served as lingua franca. Ivory Coast served as one of the brightest colonies for France. Still, French language is one of the most popular languages in this country. They still prefer to use this language for national culture. It might be possible to meet this language talking from the TV screens throughout the country. There are other using things for this language, as it can be provided as a language of business and commercial operations. Citizens of Cote d`Ivore also use this language for education purposes. Many students from Cote d`Ivoire work and study in France or other countries where French language is widely used for some purposes.
The official language of Guinea is French. There are other ethnicity languages in this country. Other significant languages spoken in this country are Loma, Kpelle, Kissi, Susu, Maninka, Pular. There are many ethnic groups that can`t understand French, but they still use other languages. National television, Government servants and press use French language as the one for conversations and debates.
Gabon is another African country where French is widely spoken. According to the recent data, around 80% of citizens in Gabon can speak French. There are more than 30% of people can say that this language is their mother tongue. Nevertheless, according to the recent data, Gabon government has intensions to add English language as the second official language of the country.
Djibouti can be named as a multilingual nation. The majority of residents speak Somali language. It`s a French speaking country in Africa that gained its independence from France in 1977. There are two official languages that work in Djibouti. These languages are Arabic and French. French language is also considered as the language of TV and mass media. It should also be mentioned that Djibouti has more than dozens other languages of ethnic minorities. Nevertheless, French and Arabic are two languages that serve as lingua franca for people. It`s especially seen in the trade sector.
The Democratic Republic of Congo
The Democratic Republic of Congo is another African French speaking country. It adopted French language as the lingua franca that provides services for communicating between different ethnic groups in the Congo. According to the various resources, around 33 million citizens of Congo can perfectly read, write and speak French. In the capital city Kinshasa, around 67% of the population can perfectly read, speak and write French. The Democratic Republic of Congo is a multilingual country which has more than 242 languages spoken in the country. The country was a Belgian colony in the past. Therefore, Belgians provided education institutions for people of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nevertheless, for today, French language is frequently used in the political and governmental sphere.
Union of the Comoros
It`s another French-speaking country in Africa. The most known language in Comoros is Comorian. This language is closely related to Swahili. It`s used with four different options of language, like Shimwali, Shingazidja, Shimaore and Shinzwani. Arabic and Latin scripts for the language are both used. Other official languages used in the Union of the Comoros are Arabic and French. Arabic is most widely known as the second language for the most of population. French is also language that can be both spoken and written by one-third of the population.
It`s another French-speaking Republic that was a colony in its past. There are two official languages in Chad. One of it is Arabic and another one if French. Nevertheless, there are more than one hundred languages spoken across the country. Due to the important roles played by Arabs in the past, Arabic language has also become one of the most spoken languages in the country. It should also be mentioned that around 54 percent of the population are Muslims. Therefore, Chadian Arabic is considered to be a lingua franca in the country. Still, French language also plays an important role in the life of the country. It`s widely used in media production and political together with the governmental sector.
The Central African Republic
There are two main languages that considered to be official here. The first one is African language of Sango, which can be quite an obvious choice for many people in the Central African Republic. Another language that is considered to be official is French. It`s the legacy of the country from the colonial period. The Central African Republic gained its independence from France in 1958. Since then, they continued their relationship with the French Republic in both ways, like political and economic. Moreover, the French language is mostly used for the media and politics, while there are many other languages in the country together with dialects of the languages. There are more than one hundred ethnic groups that live in this republic.
Two main languages considered to be official in Cameroon. The first language is English. The second one is French. When the WWII was over, German controlled Cameroon was divided between allies into French and English parts. Nevertheless, in the 1960s, both parts of Cameroon gained their independence and both parts decided to unite into one republic which was named the United Republic of Cameroon. Nevertheless, French and English languages are considered to be most welcome in this country.
It`s another African French speaking country. There are three official languages in this country: Swahili, Kirundi and French. The legacy of the country is quite interesting form some point of view. It was a Belgian colony in the past and was part of Ruanda-Urundi. Nevertheless, Burundi declared its independence from Belgium in 1962. It also provided the country with the ability to be separated from Rwanda. Still, since the proclamation of independence, Burundi has been stuck in the series of endless ethnicity violence.
Burkina Faso is also considered to be a multilingual country. There are more than 69 languages spoken in this country. The most spoken language is Mossi language that is spoken by more than 40% of the population. Nevertheless, the official language of the country is French. This language was introduced to Burkina Faso during the colonial period. It`s the only language for laws, administration and courts.
The local language is introduced in the elementary school. After few years of education in the elementary school, French is introduced to the pupils, Nevertheless, in the wealthier cities of the country, French is taught from the early period of the life. There is also the official language of Benin which is called Benin language. Nevertheless, mass media, politics and law enforce use French language on the official level.
Other countries that use French
There are other countries in the world that use French language and were widely influenced by French culture. According to some data, there are at least few percent of the population which speak French:
- Cape Verde
- Equatorial Guinea
- Sao-Tome et Principe
- Lebanon (Middle-East)
- Mauritania (Mauritania)
Back to the question of Ghana
Therefore, Ghana can`t be considered as a French-speaking country. There is a certain percent of people who can read, write and speak French, but it`s not enough to proclaim French as the official language of the country. Nevertheless, other international languages, like English can be quite usable here, especially with an official status for the language. Still, to the question of French language, it`s not possible to name Ghana as a French-speaking country.
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