There are certain things that stimulate people to get active and learn. Find out what those things are and how you can boost your learning performance.
Learning is a process, which accompanies us throughout our life. It is not easy to find out and understand new things. However, there are scientists, who constantly study this issue in order to help us. To become more successful in learning, you need to know what is learning behavior.
Learning in psychologyis a process, which leads to various changes in behavior. It is usually based on practice and experience. There exist many different types of learning as well as special strategies. Some of them have been worked out particularly for people with learning disability.
First thing you need to know is thepsychology of learning. It is considered to be a theoretical science. It usually studies effects of the environment, conditioning, and reinforcement. Besides, it provides practicing psychologists with all the necessary information to understand human behavior.
There exist three main theories, which all the education is based on. They include:
Behaviorism. The key point is to change external behavior achieved by means of reinforcement and repetition in order to shape particular behavior. It can also be achieved with the help of rewards implementation. At the same time, undesired behavior must be punished. The use of the theory allowed assisting students in excelling both academically and personally.
According to the adherents of behaviorism, teacher is a dominant person, whose responsibilities include control and evaluation. Besides, learning comes from the teacher. There is no interest in internal processes of learning, and there is no emotional involvement.
Cognitivism. This theory pays attention to the conceptualization of learning process. It is interested in how the information is received, organized, retrieved by the students’ mind. Mental activity is the main thing. It contains mental planning, goal setting, and organizational strategies. Beliefs, thoughts, and attitude values of the learner are taken into account.
Self-regulated learning. There exist several phases of it:
- task perception (learners gather information and then personalize the perception of it),
- goal setting and planning (the purpose (or several of them) must be set and the possible ways of task solving must be found),
- enacting (application of a plan with the help of skills and knowledge),
- adaptation (evaluation and reflection of results, possibilities to make them better in the future).
These are fundamental ones. There exists one more theory, known as media psychology. It is quite new and still needs to be developed. It is connected with the use of various technologies in the learning process.
To understand what is learning behavior,it is also necessary to know possible types of the process and different methods to discipline children used in them. The list contains:
Stimulus-response. It is connected with the ability to learn, when there is a particular stimulus. It provides connections between sensory and motor systems of learner. Positive and negative reinforcement might be applied.
Spatial. It involves studying the relations among several stimuli.
Perceptual. It concerns the recognition of stimuli, which have been seen before. It also involves changes within the brain sensory systems. It includes both visual and auditory methods.
Motor. It leads to changes in the motor system.
Observational. Students learn by watching and imitation.
Relational. This type involves connections between different areas of the association cortex.
There exist three main styles. They are:
Visual: it is characterized by the use of visual objects. They might be diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. To apply the style for yourself, you must have good perception of aesthetics and be capable of learning various information by heart. It is also suitable for people, who can memorize something written down. Watching helps them to do it faster.
Auditory: information is retained through hearing and speaking. It is appropriate for those, who prefer to get the data and then summarize it. It is helpful for learners, who are keen on music as well, as they percept such information better.
Kinesthetic: it is a kind of hands-on approach. It is useful for those, who prefer doing anything active while learning. It involves more demonstration than speaking. Group work is preferable.
There are people with special needs. They usually require application of appropriate strategies and methods because of their learning disabilities. These issues mostly concern children. In general, it is neurological disorder, which results from difference in the way a person's brain is "wired". It doesn’t mean those people are stupid. They may even be smarter than all the rest. However, they have certain difficulties with reasoning, reading, writing, spelling, recalling or organizing information, etc. Remember that it has nothing to do with physical disabilities.
There are several types of such disorders, which are connected with a particular difficulty. Among them, there are:
Dyslexia. It affects the reading ability. There can be different levels of it. It may also influence fluency, decoding of books, comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes even speech.
Dyscalculia. This problem deals with mathematics. It might be hard to understand numbers and facts in math. There might be troubles with organizing numbers as well.
Language Processing Disorder. It is a kind of auditory processing disorder. Such people often cannot attach meaning to the sounds, which form the word. This very type is connected only with language interpretation. There exist aphasia and dysphasia, which concern understanding of either oral or written speech.
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit. It can affect understanding of what person sees, or ability to draw or copy any information.
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities. People with such disorder are not able to interpret non-verbal cues such as facial expressions and body language. Troubles with coordination are also possible.
Dysgraphia. It influences fine motor skills as well as handwriting ability. It includes various writing problems, even the difficulty of forming letters.
Auditory Processing Disorder. It refers to difficulties with interpreting sounds. Sometimes, a person can’t even say where they come from.
Dyspraxia. It leads to the motor skills disability, such as movements and coordination problems.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Some people think it a learning problem, but it isn’t completely right. Such children can be very successful at school despite of being easily distracted. However, many researchers claim that even if it is not a trouble itself, those kids are more likely to have one of the listed above.
For successful personal development, you need to find out more about your learning behavior. Thus, you will be able to choose appropriate methods and strategies. It is also important to understand psychology of learning in order to help people with disorders. They also have a right for education, because many of them are smart enough and just need a little bit of support.