Education is meaningless without learning. In fact the latest is the goal of the entire process. Find out how it works.
Learning is inevitable part of education. We cannot find out new things and improve our knowledge without it. However, it is essential to understand what is learning process in education.
To learn means to receive skills or knowledge. It usually leads to the changes in behavior and attitudes as result of personal experience. Many psychologists claim that this human ability is the most outstanding characteristic. We start our education at school, and continue at university. There exist plenty of theories, strategies, and technologies for learning. They may depend on the age of people, their skills, preferences, and so on.
Philosophy of education
This term might be observed from several different points. They are:
Academic field. It refers to philosophical study of the whole process and its problems. It possesses the same methods as philosophy does. It may be concerned about aims, forms, and methods of the discipline (it's called philosophy of discipline then), or it can be connected with general things and ask and answer important questions in pedagogy, curriculum, and process of learning (it's known as philosophy of educational process).
Educational theory. In such case, it unifies learning theory, pedagogy, curriculum, and purpose of education. There exist several so-called philosophies. They include:
Behaviorism. The key point is to change external behavior achieved by means of reinforcement and repetition in order to shape particular behavior. It can be reached with the help of rewards implementation. Undesired behavior must be punished. The use of theory allowed assisting students in excelling both academically and personally. According to the adherents of behaviorism, teacher is a dominant person, whose responsibilities include control and evaluation. Besides, learning comes from the educator. There is no interest in internal processes of learning, and there is no emotional involvement.
Cognitivism. This theory pays attention to the conceptualization of learning process. It is interested in how the information is received, organized, retrieved by the students’ mind. Mental activity is the main thing. It contains mental planning, goal setting, and organizational strategies. Beliefs, thoughts, and attitude values of the learner are taken into account. It usually helps to create effective teaching and learning process. Pupils and teachers share their responsibilities for active learning.
Humanism. Students are taught to learn. Individual personalization of knowledge is present. Learners can select an appropriate resource for them, as the choice is possible for this theory. Interpersonal skills and necessity to understand the other learner’s perspective are important. Adherents of this philosophy prefer using discussions and modern technologies.
Constructivism. Self-discovery is considered a part of learning. It's allowed for pupils to make their decisions, which can be based on personal attitudes and values. There is no absolute truth. Education is thought to be life itself. Both current and previous experience is applied. Moreover, it is advisable that students could construct the concept themselves. This theory involves learning by doing. Problem-solving is basis of it.
These are the key theories, which help in planning and managing process of education.
To better understand whatis learning process in education, you need to know about the issue of technology. It is the study and practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by means of creating, applying, and managing appropriate technologies and resources.
It allows understanding the following things better:
• learning resources, including messages, materials, various devices, techniques, and so on;
• processes engaged in organization and management of education;
• processes for analyzing and finding solutions to the existing problems by means of research, production, theory, design, evaluation, and utilization.
The essential thing about such technologies is that they are interdisciplinary. They might be used in teaching any subject. Their application is possible both for the classroom and for distance learning. A teacher may use computers, different machines, special programs and web resources, pictures, graphs, hand-outs, various boards, and games. All these tools are very helpful in educational process, and they'll allow you to reach effective teaching.
How to make learning more successful
There is a frequent question concerning the fact than some students can learn better than the others. To answer this issue, you must understand they key points of learning process. They are:
Context. This point includes all the factors, which are actually beyond the classroom. However, they have great influence on the result. They might be environment, family, etc.
Input. It refers to all the characteristics that students and teachers have and bring with them. They subconsciously share them with the others.
Classroom process. Several things are of importance here: relations between teachers and students and students themselves; people’s behavior in the classroom. It is also connected with the teacher’s ability to plan and manage the process.
Output. It is the ability of the student to learn apart from the instructions. Many scientists consider it the most essential point. The educators usually evaluate such basic skills as reading, math, language use, etc.
To make learning more effective, you can follow the tips:
Taxonomies. The education must be purposeful, besides, it is advisable to create a wider system of assessment. Point out the students’ strengths and weaknesses.
Concept Maps. They will help to understand how good pupils are, what they have achieved, and what they still need to learn.
Supporting tools. Use the Internet and other computer technologies. It might be useful to give online tasks for some period of time.
Role of educational psychology in teaching and learning process
Educational psychology is considered a theoretical science. It usually studies effects of the environment, conditioning, and reinforcement. Besides, it provides practicing psychologists with all necessary information to understand human behavior.
First of all, it allows the teachers to understand how learning is going on, what has changed, and what should be developed. Thus, they can guide their students and lead them to a right direction. Besides, with the help of psychology it is possible to find out the potentials of the learners. After this, it is possible to select appropriate methods and technologies, to solve the existing problems, and to find out a good way of evaluation.
Educational psychology is necessary for those, who create a curriculum. It defines its type and content.
Thus, you see that without such science, the whole learning process would be ineffective.
Learning is the main part of education. To make it successful, it is necessary to make use of the educational psychology studies. Besides, it’s essential to apply appropriate methods and techniques. All the factors (even those, which are beyond the classroom) must be taken into account.