You are pregnant? Worry about the risks of diabetes during pregnancy? Read the article to know about gestational diabetes.
If many people have heard about usual diabetes, then there are a few chances that you know about gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is to increase the level of glucose in the blood, which is detected during pregnancy. The disease is not so common, is characteristic of only 4% of all pregnancies but still you need to know about it, though, because the disease is far from harmless.
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy: effects and risks
Diabetes during pregnancy may affect fetal development. When it arises in early pregnancy, then increases the risk of miscarriage, and, what is worse the appearance of congenital malformations of your baby. Mostly affected are important organs of crumbs, heart, brain.
Diabetes during pregnancy, which began in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, causes fattening and excessive fetal growth. This can lead to hyperinsulinemia: after birth, when your child will not get needed amount of sugar from his mother his blood sugar indicators can fall to very low levels.
If the disease is left undetected and untreated, it can lead to different disorders. Symptoms of diabetic fetopathy a child:
- large size (up to 4 kg weight);
- violation of body proportions (thin limbs, big belly);
- swelling of tissues, excessive deposition of subcutaneous fat;
- respiratory disorders;
- neonatal hypoglycemia, increased blood viscosity and the risk of thrombus formation;
- low content of calcium and magnesium in the blood of the newborn.
During pregnancy, the female body is a kind of a hormone storm, and one of the consequences of these changes is a violation of the tolerance of the body to glucose, someone has stronger, someone has weaker. What does this mean?
The blood sugar level is high (higher than the upper limit of normal), but still not enough to be able to make a diagnosis as "diabetes". In the third trimester of pregnancy, as a result of new hormonal changes may develop gestational diabetes. If she can not cope with this function during the growing concentration of hormones, there is such a thing as appearance of diabetes during pregnancy.
There are certain risk factors that increase the likelihood that a woman during pregnancy will develop gestational diabetes. However, even the presence of all these factors ensures that diabetes still occurs as well as the absence of these adverse factors do not provide 100% protection against the disease.
- Overweight, observed in women before pregnancy (especially if the weight exceeds the norm by 20% or more);
- Nationality. It turns out that there are certain ethnic groups, for which the gestational diabetes occurs much more frequently than for others. These include Afroamerican, Hispanics, native Americans and Asians;
- Violation of the body's glucose tolerance (as we have already mentioned, the level of sugar higher than normal, but not enough to make the diagnosis "diabetes");
- Heredity. Diabetes is one of the most serious hereditary disease, its risk increases if some close relatives from your line was a diabetic;
- Preceding the birth of a large (over 4 kg) child;
- Previous birth of a stillborn child;
- You have been diagnosed "gestational diabetes" during a previous pregnancy;
- Too much amniotic waters.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes
If you find some signs at risk, tell your doctor to appoint an additional examination. If there is not found anything wrong, you will pass another analysis, together with all the other women. All the rest are screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.
READ ALSO: Is honey good for diabetics?
How would this happen?
You will be prompted to do the analysis - test for organism glucose tolerance. You will need to drink a sweetened liquid containing 50 grams of sugar. After 20 minutes, there will be a less pleasant stage blood from a vein analysis. The fact is that the sugar is digested quickly, within 30-60 minutes, but the individual reactions are different, and that's what interested physicians. So they are trying to find out how well the body is able to metabolize the sweet solution and absorb glucose.
In that case, if a blank "analysis" column number is 140mg dl (7,7mmol L) or higher, it is a high level. You will have one more analysis, but this time after several hours. Life of a diabetic, frankly, is not sweet both literally and figuratively. But the disease can be controlled if you know how to do this and precisely follow the doctor's instructions.
So what can help cope with diabetes during pregnancy?
- Control of blood sugar levels. This is done 4 times a day, 2 hours after each meal. You might also need more and more checks before meals;
- Compliance with special diets told by your doctor.Reasonable exercise on the advice of the doctor;
- Control of body weight;
- At this point in pregnancy as an antidiabetic drug is allowed to be used only insulin;
- Control of blood pressure.
Diet for Gestational Diabetes
If you have found gestational diabetes, you have to revise your diet - this is one of the conditions for the successful treatment of this disease. Typically, it is recommended to reduce the body weight (this contributes to insulin resistance), but the pregnancy is not the time for weight loss, because the fetus should receive all the necessary nutrients. So, you should reduce the calorie intake, without compromising its nutritional value.
1. Eat small portions of food 3 times a day, 2-3 times have a snack at the same time. Do not skip meals! Breakfast should consist of 40-45% of carbohydrates, in the evening snack should also contain carbohydrates, about 15-30 grams.
2. Avoid fried and greasy food, as well as foods rich in carbohydrates. These include, for example, confectionery and pastries and some fruit (bananas, persimmons, grapes, cherries, figs). All these products are rapidly absorbed and provoke a rise in blood sugar, which has few nutrients, but a lot of calories. In addition, to offset their high glycemic effect, it takes too much insulin, which at the time of diabetes is an unaffordable luxury.
3. If you feel sick in the morning, keep on your bedside table crackers or dry crackers and eat a few pieces before you get out of bed. If you are treated with insulin, and in the morning you are sick, make sure you know how to deal with low blood sugar.
4. Do not eat fast food. It is subjected to pre-industrial process in order to reduce their preparation time, but their effect on improving glycemic index is greater than that of natural analogues. Therefore such products should bebexcluded from the diet - sublimated noodles, soup "5 minutes", quick cooking oatmeal, sublimated mashed potatoes.
5. Pay attention to the foods rich in fiber: cereals, rice, pasta, vegetables, fruits, bread from whole grains. This is true not only for women with gestational diabetes, every pregnant woman should eat 20-35 grams of fiber per day. The same fiber is as useful for diabetics? It stimulates the bowels and slows the absorption of excessive fat and sugar in the blood. Even foods that are rich in fiber, contain many essential vitamins and minerals.
6. There should be no more than 10% of saturated fats in your daily diet. In general, eat fewer foods containing "hidden" and "visible" fats. Avoid sausages, frankfurters, sausages, bacon, sausage, pork, lamb. It is much preferable to eat meat: turkey, beef, chicken, and fish. Get off all visible fat. Prepare it in a gentle way: boil or bake.
- READ ALSO: What are the best diabetes foot care tips?