What is the list of diseases spread through water pollution? How to prevent this problem? Read the article to learn more facts about this global issue.
How are diseases spread through water?
Diseases spread through air water and foods have the greatest value. In developing countries, four fifths of all diseases falls to the share of the ones transmitted through water. At the same time, diarrhea is the most frequent reason for child mortality. In the modern world, about 1.1 billion people are still not provided with access to clear drinking water, and 2.4 billion more — to adequate disinfecting. Today there are authentic data that as a result of the diseases, which are transmitted through water and low sanitary and hygienic level. Annually, there are about 2,213,000 lethal outcomes and it is lost up to 82,196,000 years of life adjusted for an invalidization. So what diseases spread through water?
List of diseases spread through water
By estimates of World Health Organization, around the world, more than 2 billion in people are infected with shistosomes and the helminths, which are transmitted through the soil. As a result, about 300 million people have serious diseases. But what if all this disease had military water filters or water filters for emergency situations?
Malaria kills more than one million people annually. The big percent of death is the share of children under five years, mainly in Africa, in the south of the Sahara. The volume of defeat has made 42.3 million not lived years adjusted for an invalidization that makes 10% of all diseases in Africa. Annually about 396.8 million cases of sharp diseases are registered. Among adults, the main risk group is pregnant women. As one of the main problems, which are associated with the state of health in the countries of Africa, is called following: because of incidence of malaria economic growth in the African countries decreased by 1.3% annually within the last 30 years.
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By expert estimates, 246.7 million people in the world are infected with schistosomes. 20 million people suffer from consequences of serious severity, and 120 million more have more softly expressed symptoms. By estimates, 80% percent of infections occur in Africa, in the south of the Sahara. Diarrhea arises everywhere in the world and causes 4% of lethal outcomes and 5% of disability. Only in Bangladesh, about 35 million people daily suffer from the raised arsenic level in drinking water (which have passed neither via military water filters nor via water filters for emergency situations), doing essential harm to their health and leading to the serious reduction of the expected life expectancy. The diseases transferred with water extend through infection of systems of drinking water with urine and excrements of the infected people or animals.
Diseases spread through water pollution arise mainly in regions where public and private water systems receive water from a surface (the river, canals, lakes, ponds, etc.) which can be polluted with substances of the infected people or animals. Surface water can also become polluted from soiled drains from dumps, septic tanks, pipes of the sewer system, household wastes, and the waste of the industrial enterprises.
Such pollution of surface water and water systems became the reason of numerous sharp outbreaks of the diseases, which are transmitted in the fecal and oral way such as cholera and typhoid. Nevertheless, there is a set of ways on which traces of fecal masses can get into a gastrointestinal tract, for example, through hands or together with food. Mainly the infected food going to the organism becomes the reason of diseases of people.
The causative agents of infections, which are contained in excrements, can become a cause of illness even at the most fleeting contact. Infection can occur through sewage and as a result of the discharge of sewer waters.
The only way to stop distribution is observance by the population of rules of hygiene and sanitation and providing people with necessary resources. Flashes of incidence of malaria happen when many people sleep in the hot season on the street or in rooms where protection against penetration of mosquitoes isn't provided. Adequate protection against malarial mosquitoes, tropical flies, and the infected snakes can be provided by means of effective water disposal as the life cycle of the listed carriers of dangerous diseases directly depends on water availability.
Availability of the clear water received via military water filters or water filters for emergency situations is a necessary condition for reduction of the spread of the diseases transferred with water. It is authentically known that a large number of the diseases transferred with water can be significantly reduced as a result of providing with clear drinking water and adequate sanitary systems for safe utilization of excrements.
For the destruction of causative agents of infectious diseases in systems of water supply and prevention of their subsequent reproduction in distributive systems, water is disinfected. Disinfection is applied to prevention of reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and to the protection of human health. The choice of disinfecting agents for the application depends on specific features of the composition of water in the region and on a system of water supply.
Without application of measures for disinfection the risk of emergence and spread of the diseases transferred by water increases. Two most widespread ways of destruction of microorganisms in the system of water supply are the following: oxygenating with the use of such chemical reagents as chlorine, dioxide of chlorine or ozone and UF-radiation.
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