The longevity is the socio-biological phenomenon, it is living out of a person to a high age boundaries.
The basis of longevity is the normal variability of the duration of human life; also is a significant manifestation of the adaptive mechanisms of physiological aging.
The thresholds of longevity sometimes are considered people who achieve of 80 years or more, depending on many factors like heredity, socio-economic conditions, natural influences, and other.
In gerontology the highest level of longevity is 90 years and above. The longevity people are usually those who have an optimal level of functioning of major physiological systems; they are characterized by wide adaptive capacities, which is a prerequisite for health and vitality.
According to scientists, the majority of long-livers, who are older than hundred years old live in Japan. There are more than 32 thousand of inhabitants at the age of hundred years and even older, their number grew by more than a third over during last four years.
According to the results of the investigation, the number of Japanese who are over than 100 years old, increased by 3,900 persons and on 1 September of 2009 there were already 32295 of long-livers.
According to UN statistics, a centenarian also is a person who has lived more than 90 years. There is a popular Guinness Book of records, which does not reflect all records for longevity, but it also amazes: according to the authors of the book of records, the limit of human life is 122 years. For example, 122 years have lived Jeanne Louise Calma, a citizen of France, she was born on 21 of February in 1875. Also two years shorter lived citizen of Japan, Shigechiyo Izumi, he was born in 1865 and died of pneumonia in 1986. In one of the Cairo newspapers they told about a man who was 195 years old, and he perfectly remembered the opening of the Suez Canal.
Are there any special rules for longevity?
So we have a question, what is the average life duration in the world at all? In this area the leadership in life duration between men and women belongs to Japan. In 1990 the average life duration of Japanese women was 81 years and it exceeded the life duration of the citizens of Switzerland. Next were the Swedish, French and Dutch. The average life expectancy of the Japanese in 1990 was 75.86 years, the Swedes — 74,79 years, the Icelanders — 73,45 years. The average life expectancy of the population of Russia in 2003 was 65 years, and at men — 59 years, women — 72 years.
The average life duration in Cuba, the neighbors of the United States, is one of the highest in the world: it is 76 years. With on 11 million of population there are about three thousand people who are over than hundred years old.
According to the UN, average life duration in Europe achieve 79 years, while men only 71years.
What is the secret of longevity?
One answer for this question can’t exist. The personality of any person is always individual and unique. And every person has his own destiny.
The process of aging of long-livers is slower. All age-related changes of basic physiological systems are developing smoothly, all systems of the organism are similar to people of younger age (as example, the morphological and biochemical blood composition, some indicators of the cardiovascular system, endocrine systems and the Central nervous system).
The type of higher nervous activity of long-livers, as a rule, is strong and balanced. Typically, they are outgoing and friendly, show interest in events and phenomena of the environment, they are spiritually balanced (they respect for the laws of ancestors and are very religious). Also they are resistant to stress, infectious diseases. The long-livers have a good memory, they are characterized by high mental and physical activity, productivity.
They differ by a long-term of preservation of reproductive function and usually they have many children. So, the Chechen and Ingush men long-livers have the offspring to 69-70 years, women - up to 55-58 years. Approximately 44% of long-livers men and 31% women are healthy.
The cardiovascular system, for example, is characterized by significant safety in comparison with other people. A low cholesterol content in blood is considered to be one of the indicators of predisposition to longevity. Other prognostic sign of longevity – age when the teeth start to destroy; it is individual for every person, but in case of longevity it can proceed in 60-69 years.
The studies show that long-livers tend a measured, orderly way of life, absence of harmful habits (alcohol consumption, smoking, poor nutrition).
Leonard Hayflick, the Professor of anatomy of University of California created the theoretical curve with an upper limit of 115 years, basing on the graphs of survival for different countries and different periods.
Simultaneously, Hayflick discovered another pattern: the duration of human life is proportionally linked to the weight of brain to body weight. The higher the ratio, the longer the life, although during hundreds of years the ratio of brain weight to body weight did not change. In addition, Leonard Hayflick theorized that the aging occurs after the cessation of growth, and those whose growth does not cease with time, are aging very slowly.
Is it possible to define the basic terms of longevity? We will try to isolate the characteristics, which most academic researchers pay attention on.
Environmental and social living conditions of long-livers
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Many gerontologists believe that the potential longevity is determined by genes. To some extent this is confirmed by the demonstration of this property of the human body in several generations. However, the socio-economic, environmental factors and lifestyle play a significant role.
The research, made by researchers from a Canadian University in Hamilton, has involved more than 500 people over the age of 40 years. Scientists were able to determine accurately how various factors affect on the life duration of people. According to them, is extremely harmful to live next to the main thoroughfare - the researchers found that people living near huge roads, die on average in 2.5 years earlier than those who live away from the roadway. A group of researchers with leader Dr. Arden Pope from the University of Birmingham in late 2009 confirmed the fact that the main factor of longevity is clean air.
The heredity and genetic factors of longevity
Also there was a research, in which people explored the mountainous areas of Abkhazia and mountainous areas in the Andes (Ecuador) and concluded that the conditions of life in these areas are very similar, and longevity here can be attributed to heredity and lack of some residents of the so-called "harmful genes" that increase the risk of disease. It becomes obvious that heredity in the question of longevity plays a very important role.
The longevity is related with genetic factors. It is proven the genetic propensity for longevity and the probability of occurrence of diseases of old ages (the atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, etc.). But it is also known that a combination of favorable factors contribute to the longevity.
And there are 15 main rules, that will help you to stay healthy and maybe become a long-liver.
1. Monotonous diet.
2. Living in one place.
3. Life in one (a single, monolithic, clan) society.
4. Relatively high safety.
5. Drink red wine. (But moderate amount)
6. High motor activity.
7. Life without stresses.
8. Sleep well, and also in afternoon.
9. Life in cold climate and tempering.
10. It is important not to pay attention on little problems.
11. Big and happy family.
12. The lack of fear of death.
13. Don’t waste your energy.
14. The genetic factor.
15. Moderation in all things. In expression of feelings, in food, etc.
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