The Zika virus has arrived in the United States, with mosquitoes. The virus causes birth defects in babies born to some infected pregnant women. How does zika virus spread? Read more here.
From the end of 2015, media reports emerged about the spread of an infectious disease caused by Zika virus in the countries of Central and South America. Zika virus refers to a zoonotic arbovirus (a group of viruses, which are carriers of arthropods) infections carried by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In humans, the virus causes a disease known as Zika fever; which etiologically is related to yellow fever, Dengue fever, West Nile.
Zika virus first found
The disease got its name after a monkey caught in the Zika forest, literally in the "thick forest."
The disease is prevalent in tropical and subtropical climates, from the end of 2015, the virus Zika was found in Brazil. Official sources reported about more than 4 million cases of infection of Zika fever throughout the world.
READ ALSO: Is there zika virus in Nigeria?
How Zika spreads
The virus enters the blood to person through the bite of mosquitoes belonging to genus Aedes. Within a few days, an infected person has a high body temperature, characteristic skin rash, redness of the conjunctiva and the eye sclera.
The strain of Zika virus was first discovered in Uganda, on the African continent, during a scientific survey about the spread of yellow fever virus. It was found in the blood of macaques in 1947. Further investigations showed its presence in the body of the population.
It is established that the Zika virus can also be spread from person to person through sexual contact, and from mother to child in utero.
Developing of the disease
About the incubation period of the disease little is known, with high probability, it can range from 1 to 3 days. Symptoms are expressed softly and have similarities with other infectious diseases. The infection is always acute, chronic forms the disease does not have. Is fast enough, but the virus can affect the genetic structure of the human body and cause a rare, but dangerous complications.
Clinical symptoms of Zika virus include:
- minor headaches;
- general malaise;
- itchy macular or papular skin rash (the rash appears first on the face and spreads throughout the body);
- pain in muscles and joints with possible swelling of the small joints;
- hyperemia and inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis);
- pain in eyes;
- intolerance to bright light.
If the disease infects a pregnant woman, it penetrates in embryos and provokes the vices of its development, which include microcephaly – a child is born with reduced brain weight and reduced skull. This condition is accompanied by a backlog of the child in mental development, followed by imbecility or abnormality. In adults after infection have been registered single cases of development of a syndrome of Hyenas-Barre, which is the formation of an autoimmune process with the expressed muscle weakness. The manifestations of this syndrome disappear on their own without residual effects.
Zika virus cure
Specific causal treatment (treatment aimed at the destruction of the causative agent of the pathological process) for Zika virus does not exist.
The treatment is in compliance with bed rest, increased fluid intake to reduce the level of intoxication and the admission of easily edible food with vitamins. To minimize the temperature of the body at the height of fever and severity of pain in the joints can be applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after exclusion of the development of Dengue fever, in which there is a risk of bleeding of different localization. Usually, after the general recommendations in a few days, symptoms of Zika virus are declining, and after 7-8 days from the onset of the disease disappear.