How do you think – is obesity very dangerous for the organism? Is it a disease? What are causes of obesity? What are the main methods of obesity treatment? Read the answers for this questions below.
Obesity is one of the most common worldwide diseases, manifest violation of the overall energy balance of the body, metabolism, excessive deposition of fat in the tissues, especially in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Temp of obesity depend of the amount of food coming into the body, degree of self-regulation of energy metabolism disorders, the activity of human motor function. But the worst thing at the development of obesity, which we often do not suspect - stimulation of them sets the most serious diseases of the majority of our internal organs and functions, often - even death.
The development of obesity is most often caused by an imbalance between energy intake from food and energy expenditure of the body. Excess calories received to the body and which are not spent, converted into fat, which accumulates in the fat depot of the body (mainly in the subcutaneous tissue, glands, abdominal wall, internal organs, and so on). The increase of fat reserves leads to an increase weigh of body and impaired functioning of many body systems. Overeating leading to obesity in more than 90% cases and about 5% of cases of obesity caused by a metabolic disorder.
Changes in eating behavior are the result of violations of the hypothalamic-pituitary regulation, responsible for the control of behavioral responses. The increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system leads to increased production of ACTH, cortisol secretion rate and the acceleration of its metabolism. There is a decrease of the secretion of growth hormone, rendering lipolytic action, develop hyperinsulinemia, metabolic disorder of the thyroid hormones and the sensitivity of tissues to them.
A number of factors that contribute to obesity:
- inactive lifestyle;
- genetically determined disorders of enzymatic activity;
- error in the character and the power mode (excessive consumption of carbohydrates, fats, salt, sugary and alcoholic drinks, eating at night, and others);
- certain endocrine pathology (hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, insulinoma, Cushing's disease);
- binge eating disorder;
- physiological state (lactation, pregnancy, menopause);
- stress, lack of sleep, use of psychotropic and hormonal drugs (steroids, insulin, contraceptive pills), and so on.
According to the predominant localization of fat at the body there are three following types of obesity:
- abdominal (upper or android) - excessive deposition of adipose tissue in the upper body and abdomen (the figure is similar to form of apple). More frequent in men and the most dangerous for health. Because it is related with the risk of hypertension, diabetes, stroke and heart attack.
- femoral-gluteal (bottom) - a preferential deposition of fat in the thighs and buttocks (figure resembles a pear shape). More common for women and is accompanied by dysfunction of joints, the spine, venous insufficiency.
- Intermediate (mixed) - an even distribution of fat throughout the body.
Obesity may have a progressive nature with increasing of fat volume and a gradual increase of body weight, can be in stable or residual (remaining after weight loss) stages. On the mechanism and causes obesity may be a primary (alimentary-exchange or exogenous-constitutional, or simple), secondary (hypothalamic or symptomatic) and endocrine.
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Full people prefer to use higher amounts of fat-containing foods in their nutrition. At the same time they have the reduced ability to oxidize fat compared to lean people.
Obesity is a chronic disease that has become a major public health problem in the most industrialized countries. Morbid obesity takes on truly alarming proportions due to the inevitable development of severe co-morbidities that are in direct causal connection with the overweight.
The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that humanity is on the verge of a global epidemic of overweight and obesity:
- looking at prevalence (from obesity is suffering more than 1 billion people on the planet);
- on the severity of the long-term consequences for future generations because of the sharp rise in obesity prevalence among children;
- for a significant increase in deaths.
The main methods of obesity treatment
- Compliance of the diet with a high content of fiber, vitamins and other biologically active ingredients (cereals and whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, greens and others) and restriction of the use of digestible carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, cakes, bread and pasta from flour of higher grades). Also you should do sport exercises.
- The overall approach to drug treatment for obesity is the testing of all known drugs for the treatment of obesity. For that are using anti-obesity medication.
- If the result of medical treatment is a minor, it is necessary to stop such treatment.
Then discussed the surgical treatment. Liposuction - the operation, during which the fat cells are sucked, currently not used to combat obesity, but only for the cosmetic correction of small local fat deposits. Subcutaneous fat does not harm health. Visceral fat located in the stuffing box and around internal organs located within the abdominal cavity harm health and body.
Diets often increased obesity. The reason is that the rigid diet (drastic reduction of calorie intake) can help reduce weight quickly, but after stopping the diet increases appetite, improves digestibility of food and gain weight, superior to what it was before the diet. If the patient is obese is once again trying to lose weight through a rigid diet, each time shedding weight will be more and more difficult.
Therefore, a diet focused on quick results (as it is possible to lose more weight in a short time) are harmful and dangerous practice. Many slimming laxatives and diuretics contain components which leads to loss of water, rather than fat. The loss of water is useless to fight against obesity and is harmful for health. Moreover, according to research of American psychologist Tracy Mann and her colleagues, diet generally useless as a means of combating with obesity.
For the prevention of obesity for a person with a normal weight is enough to spend calories and energy as much as he receives it during the day. If you are hereditary predisposition to obesity, after the age of 40 years and with physical inactivity you will need to limit consumption of carbohydrates, fats, an increase in dietary protein and plant foods. Need a reasonable physical activity: walking, swimming, running, visiting of gyms. If there is dissatisfaction with their own weight, to reduce it is necessary to address to the endocrinologist and nutritionist to assess the extent of violations and drafting of individual weight loss program.
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