The blood in the stool can be bright red, burgundy, black and highly visible, or hidden (not visible to the unaided eye). The causes of blood in stool are very different, it can begin from harmless causes, such as irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, and also it can signify serious diseases such as hemorrhoids or even cancer.
Bleeding from the rectum (the hematochezia) usually is accompanied with bright red blood from the anus often mixed with feces and/or blood clots. The rectal bleeding more common can be from the colon, rectum and anus.
The color of the blood during rectal bleeding often depends on the location of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. As a rule, the closer the source of bleeding is to the anus, the brighter is the blood. Thus, bleeding from the anus, from rectum and sigmoid colon is usually bright red and bleeding from the rectum and transverse is usually dark red or burgundy.
Sometimes, bleeding from the back passage can be black and smelling bad. Black, smelly and tarry stool is called melaena. Melaena occurs when the blood is in the colon stays long enough and it is good environment for growth of bacteria. Therefore, melaena usually means bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract (for example, bleeding from ulcers of the stomach, or from the duodenum, or from the small intestine).
Sometimes melaena can occurs from bleeding from the right part of the colon. On the other hand blood from the sigmoid colon and the rectum usually does not stay in the colon long enough for growth of bacteria, to the feces became black. Rarely, the massive bleeding from the right colon from the small intestine, or from ulcers of the stomach or duodenum can cause rapid transfer of the blood through the gastrointestinal tract and as a result it causes bright red rectal bleeding. In such situations the blood is moving so quickly that bacteria have not enough time to transform the blood in black colour.
Sometimes, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract can be too slow to look like rectal bleeding or melaena. This is hidden blooding (not visible to the unaided eye). Blood in the stool is observed only by tests (the fecal testing for hidden blood) in the laboratory.
Bleeding is often associated with anemia. Anemia is the loss of Fe along with the blood (Fe deficiency anemia).
The streaks of blood in normally formed or liquid stool.
There are causes of this type of blooding:
tumors (malignant and benign) of the gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulum of intestine, etc.
The red blood, which is not mixed with the stool.
Most often it is obvious that the bleeding from hemorrhoids of the rectum or from the fissures. The bright red blood in the stool is a common symptom for hemorrhoids. Most often we are talking about the secretion of red blood without clots. Rarely there can appear the dark blood with clots.
Bleeding from the anus is characterized for anal fissure, but the blood portion is quite little, it secretes during or immediately after defecation.
The secretion of red blood happens in case of cancer of the rectum, therefore, if you notice the appearance of bleeding, you need to see a doctor, to do conduct digital research, as well as sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
If person has black loose stools, it shows, that the patient has massive bleeding from any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Black color of stool is due to a change of blood under the action of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The reason for such massive bleeding can be ulcers or erosion of the stomach or of the duodenum, varicose veins of the esophagus (it is the manifestation of liver cirrhosis), certain drugs and toxic substances. In addition, bleeding can be caused by malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
There is a list of diseases in which the patient has bleeding from the rectum
• anal fissure
• intestinal cancer
• Crohn's Disease
• Diverticulum (diverticulosis)
• ulcerative disease
• Stomach cancer
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The possible causes of bleeding from the rectum
• the varicose expansion of veins of the esophagus
The appearance of blood in the stool is always a serious symptom that requires the involvement of a doctor. Minor, one-time appearance of red blood, which is not mixed with stool in case of constipation, may be caused by hyperextension and rupture of the anus by too hard stool. This case doesn’t require the medical intervention.
Infectious causes of blood in stool:
Dysentery (shigellosis) is a disease which is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella . The bacteria most often affect the lower part of the colon, causing mucosal injury, which is manifested by frequent liquid stools (10-30 times per day) mixed with blood, a large number of mucus, pus. It is characterized also by cramping abdominal pain, and then appear painful urges to defecate - tenesmus; in addition, there is intoxication – fever, shiver, fatigue, pain in muscles and joints.
Amoebiasis is a protozoal infection (which means that the agent is simple – an amoeba). Amoeba also affects fat intestine, which causes frequent, loose stool in small portions mixed with blood, mucus and pus. Amoebiasis in case of the absence of adequate treatment tends to be chronic.
Balantidia infection, it is infection, which is caused also by the simplest, by balantidia. The symptoms are similar to the manifestations of amebiasis. Often the disease is asymptomatic or mild, but sometimes there is a long flowing diarrhea with blood.
- What doctor can I ask if I have such problem, of the appearance of blood in the stool?
The systematic appearance of blood in the stool should consult a doctor - a proctologist, a coloproctologist.
Causes of blood in stool in children
Quite often we hear that caring and loving mothers constantly check the feces of their children. This is the right decision. Because since the birth of the baby is just starting to develop their gastro-intestinal tract and it is very important in the case of disturbance of stool or the appearance the blood in it to go to the doctor immediately. Because children's organisms are very weak and at this point it may develop any disease.
It is natural that any change in behavior, well-being and the appearance of the child is very alarming for every mom. And when the blood appears in the stool of child, it is very disturbing.
But we should not panic immediately, because often the appearance of blood in baby stool doesn’t signify anything terrible.
From the birth, in the first three days, baby’s stool is only beginning to form and so it can change. The stool of the newborn can be any color up to the moment when his stool does not take a pasty state, and a yellow-brown color. Also within a few days after birth the child may have a stool with a slight admixture of blood. However, if a child feels good, then do not panic once again.
Children who are breastfed may have a milk allergy and as a consequence their feces may contain blood. If your kid has this phenomenon constantly, it is better to consult a doctor and get tested.
Sometimes the food which eats a child can contain color, which will be dye his stool. Such foods include beets, tomato juice, currants, ketchup, wine and more. Thus, seeing that the feces of your child are painted in red color, analyze your diet or the diet of your baby for the last day.
Another safe cause of blood in the stool of the child may be mechanical damage to the anal canal. The reasons for this can serve as constipation, scratching in the anus, and so on. In case of this damage the child feels a sharp pain in the process of emptying. Usually, such cause of blood is treated with special ointments, enemas, cleaning and dieting.
It is quite another thing when, together with the discharge of feces, there is still several other symptoms including drowsiness, weakness, stomach cramps, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, mucous or frothy stool, fever, loss of consciousness and so on. In the complex with different signs of bloody stools it may show a large number of different serious diseases. Between such diseases are intestinal infections, abnormal anatomy or the development of the digestive system, the presence of polyps in the intestine, inflammation of small intestine or colon, irritation, intestinal obstruction, and many others diseases.
Besides that the appearance of blood in the stool of the child can be caused by parasites, nose bleeding or recent surgery of removing of the tonsils.
Moreover the bleeding in various diseases does not always manifest itself in a bright red color. If the source of the disease is at the beginning of the gastrointestinal tract, on its way out the blood manages to change color as a result of chemical reactions. That is why it often appears in a dark, often black color. Often parents react to the appearance of red blood in the stool of the child, rather than in the dark stool. But the fact is that parents do not perceive dark stool like bloody.
The diagnosis and treatment of the disease
But still you should not make fast conclusions when you notice bleeding in the stool of your child. If you see the changes of the health of your child, it is very important not to lose time and to start a timely treatment. So you just need to consult a specialist if your child is regularly observed with bloody stool, and there is huge amount of blood in the stool, if in addition to blood in the stool there is foam, mucus or undigested pieces of food.
In order to make a diagnosis quickly and correctly you need to know the overall clinical picture. To do this, you should carefully observe the health and behavior of the child, and other physiological changes. Also the doctor will ask you about how many times and what the child ate, how often he goes to the toilet, in what form is manifested the blood, which can be released in the form of clumps, strips, or separate fragments mixed together. In addition, it will be interested in the color of excreta. If along with the feces secrete small fragments of blood, this indicates the closeness to the source of the bleeding to the anus.
In any case, do not take any action until you visit the doctor. During this period, it is impossible to put baby on his stomach, put a heating pad, do an enema and feed, it is better to give just warm water.
It often happens that the disease which is accompanied with presence of blood in stool of child is treated well and quickly. Very rarely the doctors use the surgery.
Thus, even if the child was diagnosed with bad diagnosis, you should keep calm and follow instructions of the doctor. Be assured that your care will bring the baby a speedy recovery.
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