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What is diabetes insipidus?

Do you know what causes diabetes insipidus? What are the most effective ways to treat it? You can learn more about it right here from this article.

diabetes insipidus

What is diabetes insipidus?

The definition of diabetes insipidus is “ is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine.”

The principle of this disease is very simple: you are always very thirsty; therefore, you drink more liquid than usually and use the bathroom more frequently. Even though there is a word “diabetes” in the title of this disease, in reality, it is not connected to the level of sugar in the blood. It is merely a condition in which your body produces more urine than usually.

Here is how this state works. It all starts with a hormone known as antidiuretic. It is produced in the hypothalamus. Then it goes to the neural lobe of hypophysis where it is stored until needed.  The point of this hormone is to control some water kidneys should hold.

The more water they hold, the higher concentration your urine has. However, when you feel thirsty at all times and consume much liquid, the concentration of your urine drops down, and that is how your urine gets diluted and clear.

Scholars explain that in case your hypothalamus does not produce enough of this antidiuretic hormone, you are diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. And when there is a sufficient amount of this hormone in your body, but your kidneys cannot process it well, you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

diabetes insipidus causes

What are the causes of diabetes insipidus?

Your body can develop this condition in several ways. First of all, remember that the primary function of your kidneys is to get rid of the excessive liquids in your organism. Therefore, whenever it is found, kidneys send them directly to the bladder to store up in the shape of urine.

However, sometimes, when you are doing hard physical work, or training in a gym, the sweat that comes out becomes another source of excessive liquid release. That is when kidneys of an entirely healthy person produce less urine.

Diabetes insipidus is often developed by individuals whose hypothalamus is not working properly. Therefore, the hormone responsible for the kidney functioning is not produced in the amount needed. The disruption in the work of the hypothalamus can be a result of failed surgery, head injury, inherited disease, or cancer.

The another cause for this medical condition is kidneys are not working the right way. We are talking here about kidney tubules, the part of kidneys that is directly connected to the process of water storage control and its release.

diabetes insipidus treatment

The third cause of diabetes insipidus is a unique one. Pregnant women can develop what is called “Gestational diabetes insipidus.” It takes place when expectant mothers' placenta is producing a nutrient that kills vasopressin (a different name for antidiuretic hormone).

READ ALSO: What is diabetes diet plan?

Finally, this disease can come from drinking too much water. This water in amounts that are not needed can make urine diluted and decrease its concentration levels. A person that is drinking too much water inevitably damages kidneys. So, one should be very careful when consuming water or any other liquids in excessive volumes. They should consult their physician about this to make sure they are doing everything right.

How to diagnose diabetes insipidus?

To diagnose this disease, you should ask for professional help. However, you can check out whether you have any of these symptoms to narrow your area of search. The symptoms for adults and children are different.

Keep in mind that since much fluid is being released with urine, your body might not have enough of it left for proper functioning. That is why dehydration and its common symptoms can be among the symptoms. They are dry mouth, fever, rapid heart rate, weight loss, headache, and low blood pressure.

Apart from that adults might experience nausea, muscle cramps, loss of appetite, and fatigue. And of course, they will feel thirsty all the time and use the bathroom too often. Keep in mind that normally adults need to release around three liters of urine a day. However, people with diabetes insipidus can urinate at least fifteen liters a day.

diabetes insipidus treatment guidelines

Meanwhile, children, especially those of infantile age, have slightly different symptoms. They can have vomiting, difficulty sleeping, high temperature, spitting up, diarrhea, and weight loss.

These symptoms might indicate diabetes insipidus, and you should call a doctor immediately after any of these symptoms were noticed.

What is diabetes insipidus treatment?

This disease is usually treated with the aid of medication. However, they are only prescribed to patients with central diabetes insipidus. The name of the drug is Vasopressin. However, there is another one your doctor might opt for. It is called desmopressin. The aim of these medications is to make up for the loss of antidiuretic hormone.

They do not come in pills, but rather in sprays (nasal ones). There are additional medications that help these two things work better.

Keep in mind that this illness is not easy to the treaty so that it will take time. If this condition was developed in the course of taking certain pills, then opting for different ones can be helpful. Other than that, your physician will recommend you to drink more fluids, since there might be the deficiency of fluids in your body as a result.

diabetes insipidus definition

Finally, for the most complicated cases, specialists recommend getting Indocin and Microzide.

Once you are diagnosed with this disease, remember that there is no need to panic, as it will not cause kidney failure. However, The kidneys won’t be able to function properly, and this is not okay. On top of this, you can experience the complications of dehydration with its fatigue, dry mouth, and changes in skin elasticity. To avoid it, drink sufficient amount of water and have urine analysis on a regular basis. Stay healthy!

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