How people’s voices are formed? What factors affect it? What is voice mutation? Can you have your mother’s voice? You’ll find out everything you wanted to know about voices here!
The men's voices have a very significant impact on human communication and the implementation of specific individual due to his communicative functions, as in the case of its violations the intelligibility and audibility of speech is reduced and therefore others meet difficulties in perception. All the aspects of voice physiology and its forming, we will review in our article.
Considering the importance of the voice in the communication process, it is impossible to belittle its role in the transmission of tone, which determines not only emotional, but in many ways, the semantic aspect of the utterance. Voice function is inextricably linked with the expressive speech. The ability to speak and express own thoughts cannot be done without the full development of voice.
Healthy child learns the correct norm of sounds based on speech experience, gradually using organs of articulation for the product corresponding to the perceived auditory patterns. The formation of individual voices is affected not only by anatomical and physiological data of the person (child). Basically, the formation of voices is composed by imitation, the most effective in the age of 7 years old, and depends on what the voice and manner of its use were in others - parents, educators, teachers, and often peers.
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Of course, reflex of newborn cry is the first phonation. Newborn's voice varies in strength, but has the same height, according to George Kittel (1978), 425-435 Hz and no difference in timbre. It is based on the continuous sound of the vowel. With two-, three-week age the functionality and method of supplying the voices begin to change. The child expresses the voice of protest against the sensations of pain, hunger, and any discomfort, as well as the need for attention. At the sight of the child's mother's voice, it shows the pleasure and the method of delivery becomes softer. In the sense of hunger or pain the child produces more sharp screams on a solid voice attack.
Structure and formation of the individual parts of a child voice has a number of features that affect its physiology. These features are:
1) imbalance in the development of the individual organs of the vocal apparatus;
2) the absence of gradual development, and the presence of jumps in the process;
3) during general period of vocal apparatus formation, the existence of the such intervals when the formation of its organs takes place almost imperceptibly, without showing anything;
4) simultaneity of completing the process of growth of individual organs of the vocal apparatus.
The development of any organ of the vocal apparatus is characterized by three approximate levels of growth - intense, simple and low. Their predominant influence is manifested in different periods of life. For example, lungs develop more intensively only for the first two months after birth, and until puberty continue their growth at a normal pace.
Larynx of infants of both sexes is growing rapidly in the first year of life. In boys, it is observed in the first three months, as well as in 8-9 months, and the girls - during the 1st month, then - 4-7th months. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx intensely grow during the first six months of life. Then they continue to develop at a normal pace: sinuses - up to three years, and nasopharynx - up to six years. The bronchi and trachea grow rapidly during the first year of life. Larynx increases only during the first six months, and the vocal folds continue to grow until the end of the 1st year of life. Formation of the nose, throat and sinuses are largely completed by the beginning of puberty, ie 14 years old; all other organs of phonation stop growing with the end of puberty, till 19 years.
The period of formation of voice is conventionally divided into several stages: pre-school - 6-7 years pre-mutation - up to 13-14 years, the mutation - 13-15 years and after-mutation - up to 17-19 years.
Children of preschool age have the phonation at the expense of regional tension of short fine vocal folds, composed of connective tissue and glands. After five years old separate bundles of vocal muscles begin to form. The voice has a high sound, its range is 5-6 notes.
During pre-mutation period (simultaneously with the growth of anatomical phonation organs) the receptor apparatus of the larynx is formed. One scientist described three laryngeal reflex zones - areas of laryngeal mucosa, abundantly supplied with receptors that allow its operation as a respiratory organ, respiratory protection and phonation. The first zone is located around the entrance to the larynx, the epiglottis on the surface and on the edges of supraglottic - supraglottic folds. The second covers the entire front surface of the arytenoid cartilage. The third area is covered by the vocal folds, it is located in the larynx under the folds on the inner surface of the cricoid cartilage. The first two areas are located on the path of the inhaled air and provide a protective and respiratory function. Third - on the path of exhaled air and provides phonotone function.
The mucosa of 7-year-old child's throat has already all the reflex zones selected and so the formation of the voice muscles begins. At the age of 12 years old the formation of the vocal muscles and the development of the receptor apparatus of the larynx come to an end. During the reduction of muscles and also moving the cartilage of the larynx, the sensitive nerve endings (receptors) signal to the central nervous system on the state of cartilage, of the degree of muscle tension of the vocal apparatus, the state of the vocal folds.
Feedback (inner feelings) plays a big role during speech and singing. In these two cases the muscular sensations underlie assimilation the voice supply skills.
A child's voice gradually develops too; its range reaches 11-12 notes. An important condition for the proper, normal development of the voice is the use of it within the age range. It applies to singing, and speaking.
Mutation of young voices (from the Latin Mutatio means 'change') occurs as a result of changes in the vocal apparatus and throughout the body of a teenager under the influence of endocrine adjustment during puberty. The time during which the child phonation transits to adulthood, is a period called a mutation.
13-15 years boys’ voice box is growing rapidly and unevenly, the girls’ larynx develops slowly. There are possible fluctuations in the mutation period depending on the timing of puberty. The inhabitants of the south have the mutation earlier and it occurs more sharply than the northerners’ one. Girls tend to voice changing gradually, losing children's properties. This is more voice evolution rather than a mutation.
In some cases, there is encountered harsh restructuring in the vocal apparatus with amplification of its growth and the emergence of significant changes in the voice. During puberty male and female larynx become clear features and increase in size. The boys notice growing of the thyroid cartilage in the sagittal direction. Its front angle forms a bulge on the surface of the neck, which is called ‘Adam's apple’. The greatest difference between male and female larynx is expressed in the largest anteroposterior size, so the boys’ vocal folds lengthen by half, and the girls - just by one third. Boys’ mutation may also occur slowly, with the gradual changing of voice function. During acute period, the voices drops an octave, there is hoarseness, bass tone sounds suddenly slip on falsetto: there is the so-called ‘breaking voice’. It is so apparent that teenagers are sometimes embarrassed to use the voice.
The duration of mutation lasts between one - a few months to a year. The whole period is divided into three stages: primary, basic (peak) and the final. The primary stage is characterized by a slight erythema (redness) of the vocal folds. The basic (peak) is followed by hyperemia of the mucous membrane across the larynx, and possibly ‘no closing’ of the posterior third of the vocal folds on the equilateral triangle type (‘mutational triangle’). There are both synchronous and asynchronous vibrations of the vocal folds, which constitutes a violation of the functions of coordination of external and internal laryngeal muscles, breathing and phonation. At this stage, the voice of suffers the most. At the final stage the mutation fixes mechanism of adult phonation.
Fully formed voice length of the vocal folds in men is: 24-25 mm - bass, 22-24 mm - baritone, 18-24 mm - tenor; women: 18-21 mm - contralto, 18-19 mm - mezzo-soprano, 14-17 mm - soprano.
So formation of voices depends on many factors - the constitution of man, the structure of the vocal apparatus, state of the endocrine glands, and the mental development of the individual. As a rule, big, tall people have lower and stronger voice, but, of course, there are exceptions. Special attention should be given to the singing voice. Firstly, not always you see the same height of the spoken and singing voice. Secondly, despite the many signs, which is determined by the type of singing voice, there are cases when the singer's voice is not established immediately. So, the world-famous tenor Placido Domingo started singing as a baritone. The same thing happened with Alibek Dnishev. Then it changed.
It is well-known that voices depend on a person's mental state. During diseases such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, mental retardation - the sonority of voice is lost, its melody is broken. According to one scientist (1987), if baby cries are observed for a long time at high pitch (750 Hz), and they do not tend to fall, it may be indicative of mental disorders. The relationship between pathology of voice and neuropsychiatric disorders must be discussed in another big article as this issue has a lot of factors.
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