What do you know about Mars? Does mars have gravity? Can it be compared to our one? Could we live on the red planet? This article will give you all the answers right now!
Planet Mars shares a lot of characteristics with our own world. Both planets have approximately the same surface area, stable polar circles, and both have a similar inclination of the axes of rotation, providing each of them a strong season. In addition, both planets have a strong evidence of climate change in the past. But does Mars have a stronger or weaker gravity than earth?
At the same time, two planets are quite different. For example, the atmospheric pressure on Mars is only a small fraction of the pressure on Earth - an average of 7.5 millibars on Mars, with just over 1,000 millibars on Earth. The average temperature of the surface of Mars is also lower, ranking the highest mark of -63 ° C compared to the earth's lowest 14 ° C. And, despite the fact that the length of the Martian day is about the same as on Earth (24 hours 37 minutes), the length of the Martian year is much bigger (687 days).
Does Mars have more gravity than earth?
Does Mars have gravity at all? The answer is yes! But there is one significant difference, that there is much less gravity on Mars than on Earth - it is 62% lower. Just 0.38 of the Earth's gravity. A person who weighs 100 kg on Earth, on Mars would weigh only 38 kg.
The reason for the difference of surface gravitational force is a number of factors - it is primarily the mass, density and range. Although Mars has almost the same surface area as the Earth, its diameter is twice less and the density is less than the Earth’s one - the volume is about 15% of Earth's volume, and weight - 11%.
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Scientists have calculated the gravity of Mars according to Newton's theory of gravitation, which states that the gravitational force acting on an object is proportional to its mass. The spherical body in the form of planet with a target weight (in this case, Mars) has the attraction of surface, which is approximately inversely proportional to the square of the radius.
These proportions can be expressed by the formula g = m / r2, where g - the surface gravity of Mars (expressed in multiple of the Earth's gravity, which amounts to 9.8 m / s ²), m - weight - expressed as a multiple of the Earth's mass (5.976 • 1024 kg) - and its radius r, expressed as a multiple of (average) radius of the Earth (6371 km).
For example, Mars has a mass of 6.4185 • 1023 kg, which is 0.107 Earth masses. It also has an average radius of 3390 km, which is 0.532 of the Earth's radius. Therefore, the surface gravity of Mars can be expressed mathematically: 0,107 / 0.532², from which we get the value of 0.38. Based on the surface of the Earth's own gravity, the acceleration is 3.724 m / s².
Awareness of gravity of Mars and its effects on terrestrial beings is an important first step, for sending there astronauts, researchers and even the settlers. In general, the effect of long-term effects of gravity, which is slightly more than one-third of the Earth, will be a key aspect of any planned future manned missions.
For example, a number of projects, such as Mars One makes says about the likelihood of muscle damage and osteoporosis for their members. Referring to a recent study by the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts recognize that the mission with duration of 4 to 6 months creates the maximum loss of muscle activity by 30% and the maximum loss of muscle mass by 15%.
Their mission offers not only to stay for months in space, to get to Mars, but also to spend the rest of your life on the Martian surface. However, they also say that they intend to reduce these numbers and that their astronauts will be ‘well prepared thanks to the scientific program of countermeasures’.
We want to learn more about the gravity of Mars and how earthly beings (in the distant future) will be able to explore outer space and missions to other planets. And the more information that is extracted from robots-travelers and mission-orbiters to Mars, as well as planned manned missions, we get, we can make a clearer picture about the mysterious Martian gravity. We are getting closer to the proposed NASA manned mission to Mars, which is planned to be implemented in 2030, and we can expect a lot more research projects.
If we lived on Mars
As mentioned above, between Mats and Earth there are interesting similarities, so Mars can be considered suitable for future colonization. Let's start with the fact that Mars and Earth are almost equal to the duration of the day. A day on Mars lasts 24 Earth hours and 39 minutes, which means that animals, plants, and even people will quickly adjust to the daily routine. Should we mention the gravity again?
Mars is also similar to the Earth's axis, which guarantees similar change of seasons (although they will continue there longer). In fact, when the first hemisphere side is turned toward the sun, it’s summer, while the second swing has winter. Summer on this second hemisphere will be warmer and with longer days.
This is a nice plus for the planting seasons, which can help migrants adjust to the planet and survive the year. Like the Earth farmers, indigenous Martians will be able to allocate ‘planting season’, ‘harvest’ and note a seasonal change of holidays, festivals.
Gravity on Mars reaches only 40% of the indicators of the earth, because of what getting used to it becomes very complicated. According to the NASA report, the effect of zero gravity can significantly affect the human body, causing him to lose 5% of the mass of muscle every week and 1% of bone density in a month.
Of course, on the surface of Mars these losses will be less visible, because gravity still exists there. However, space immigrants will still eventually have to deal with degenerative muscle changes and serious disease, which is called osteoporosis.
And finally, one more obstacle is unsuitable for human breathing atmosphere. It is 95% of carbon dioxide, therefore, for the life of humanity a suitable environment needs to be created. In addition, residents cannot leave it without a pressure suit and oxygen tank.
On Mars, there is absolutely nothing in common with the magnetic field of the earth. Because of this the discharged atmosphere, the surface does not have ‘shield’ and a considerable amount of lethal ionizing radiation reaches it.
Mars is a very interesting planet. Its gravity is always a very controversial issue for scientists as they believe it may become a new background for colonies in space. Is the future always here?