What are the facts, which prove the existence of water on Mars? When were the channels on Mars found? Read the information below to learn more facts.
Does Mars have water?
Mars seemed to our ancestors mysterious and dangerous. In many respects, it remains this today. Of course, modern astronomers are sure that there are no reasonable inhabitants on Mars, and also there are no difficult organisms. It remains not clear whether there are elementary organisms, for example, bacteria there. Besides, it is interesting to learn whether Mars was manned in the past or always reminded the lifeless reddish desert. Scientists want to find out all these facts not just out of curiosity. Time of the piloted expeditions to Mars comes, and it means that studying of the nature of the planet gains practical value. It is necessary not only to choose the most suitable place for spaceships in advance but also to understand whether astronauts will manage to use the Martian water if the planet really has it. Mars approaches Earth on the shortest distance of 55 million kilometers only in 15 — 17 years. Astronomers could make out some details of a surface of Mars for the first time when telescopes with 500-fold increase have appeared. However, Mars is visible to such telescope not as well as it is desirable: it is similar to a ball of the size of the cherry, remote from eyes to the distance of 25 centimeters. It isn't easy to make out some details. But after all, astronomers have seen something.
Does Mars have water on it?
In the 19th century at the disposal of astronomers there were already not just drawings, but the first maps of Mars with the light spots designated on them — continents and more dark — the seas, following the analogy with terrestrial names. Large spots on the Moon were called continents and the seas too. But not the seas, which in a severe environment of Mars can't be filled with water, but mysterious channels have attracted huge interest on the red planet, and many people began to consider it is habituated by creatures. Channels on Mars were opened in 1877 by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli. It was the brilliant observer who, using the telescope refractor with a diameter of the lens of 50 centimeters, systematically explored Mars and created cards of its surface. On light continents of Mars, he has seen dark lines, which were called canals. Professional astronomers attentively observed channels and looked for an explanation for this phenomenon for a long time. There was a theory that channels represent not continuous single or double lines, but separate specks merging in strips.
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At the beginning of the 20th century, there were first photos of a surface of Mars, but by the quantity of the details imprinted on them, they were inferior to magnificent drawings of outstanding observers. There were no channels in photos. There was also none of them on the pictures transferred to Earth by the American artificial satellite, on which craters, extinct volcanoes (including the huge sizes), the canyons and details similar to beds of the dried-up rivers are clearly visible. Perhaps, terrestrial observers perceived something as channels, but they were not found by any of space robots working at an orbit of the red planet, investigating its surface.
The beautiful legend of the Martian channels has consigned to the past, and new pages were opened in the history of the search of water on Mars. They are written not by the astronomers working in land observatories, but clever devices, which have equipped the spacecraft exploring Mars. On the basis of the data obtained with their help, the hypothesis of an artificial origin of satellites of Mars was made. It was opened by the American astronomer in 1887. Long time both satellites didn't attract particular interest, but in the second half of the 20th century when features of their movement have been already quite investigated, the new hypothesis has appeared. In this theory, it was suggested that the satellites could be hollow and, perhaps, represent the peculiar monuments built by reasonable ancient inhabitants of the planet. This hypothesis has been buried when photos of satellites of Mars at a short distance have appeared: both of them represent the blocks with craters, furrows and other details of quite natural origin.
The new page in the history of a research of Mars and search of water on it was opened by Phoenix (USA), starting from Earth in August 2007. The Lander has landed softly on the surface of the red planet on May 2008 near the North Pole. On the mars rover, there were three scientific devices and three cameras. It was able to dig trenches a meter-deep to take and bring samples of soil to own mini-laboratory and to investigate them carefully. Phoenix had the meteorological station allowing determining temperature of the Martian air, its structure and humidity, speed and the direction of the wind. Artificial satellites of Mars obtained the scientific material from Phoenix and transferred it to Earth.
Work of Phoenix on the surface of Mars not always went well but, having overcome technical malfunctions, scientists have forced it to carry out analyses of tests of water ice and soil, and also to specify how many water vapor contains in the Martian atmosphere. Let's remind that for the first time water vapor was found in the atmosphere of Mars by astronomers still in the sixties of the last century.
Water found on Mars
In 2008, Phoenix has found water in one of the samples of the Martian soil. Besides, the device has found two minerals in soil: a lime stone and clay, which couldn't be formed without water. Nowadays existence of water on Mars confirmed. New opening of scientists of NASA proves that following a quantity of water in the atmosphere of Mars and on a surface, the talks about whether Mars has water, are far back in the past.
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