What are the coolest powers can provide us our genes? Read the article to find out!
If we try to compare other species with our own, then we can find the idea that we are the most interesting species on our planet. Still, slight variation in genes may help us to become even better humans. We can manifest our differences through a color of skin or other distinctive characteristics. Nevertheless, occasionally, ones in population we may have super human beings that can show new ways of adaptation. These genetic mutations in human are not like mutations in X-men. Still, we can work out much of the current genetic mutations in our buddies. Some super humans can help us work out these mutations.
No High cholesterol
Many people should worry about limiting fried foods in their diet. The cholesterol list consists of many products, including eggs, beacon, fried meat or chicken. Nevertheless, a few people on our planet can eat all of this without getting risk. For them, even “bad cholesterol” can be consumed without any question or risk of heart disease. These human beings were born with the genetic mutation. The fact is that lack of a gene PCSK9. It seems to be unlucky to born with missing gene. Nevertheless, this situation is quite the opposite and gives the carrier a nice side effect.
This gene was discovered by scientists more than ten years ago. Many drug companies work hard on finding the best pill that can block PCSK9. The prototypes of the drug are close to the FDA approval. According to the tests, more than seventy percent patients who tried this pill showed a reduction of cholesterol level. This mutation was found in African Americans.
What are the benefits for this mutation in humans? First of all, if scientist will be able to implement this anti-gene into drugs, then we may have an ability to eat everything we desire without risks of cholesterol. This also means that we can illuminate cholesterol as a reason for any heart disease.
There are many methods to destroy humanity. We can die from a meteor shower, nuclear annihilation or extreme climate changes. Nevertheless, the cruelest weapon against human civilization would be super virulent virus. In this situation, only a few people in the world would be immune to the disease. Nevertheless, few people in the world are indeed resistant to the viruses. If we take HIV as an example for our disease. Some people in the world have a genetic mutation that prevents HIV from copying of CCR5 protein. This protein works as a key for HIV to the human body. Therefore, if a person lacks CCR5 proteins, then it`s quite possible that he or she had a lucky ticket to get HIV Resistance.
Nevertheless, scientists admit that people who do not have CCR5 are rather resistant to the virus, then immune. Therefore, they can be perfect holders of the virus without a risk of getting any lethal options from HIV. Still, HIV is a sophisticated and complicated virus, some of the samples of HIV managed to invade cells other than CCR5. The resistance to HIV can be found in less than 1% of Caucasian. However, it still gives a nice chance for saving people from HIV and AIDS.
Resistance to Malaria
People who are resistant to Malaria may have a downside of the ability with another disease called sickle cell anemia. These malformed blood cells may provide you the ability to dodge Malaria, but with a deadly price. Nevertheless, it`s certainly the idea when a sickle cell gene might pay off. Therefore, starting from the basis.
Malaria is a type of parasite carrier virus; the main providers of the virus are mosquitos. Malaria invades red blood cells and starts reproducing. In a few days, other Malaria parasites burst out from blood cells and destroy them. New Malaria parasites invade other red blood cells and cause more damage. This cycle continues until a carrier dies or until a treatment comes to play. Malaria provides a significant blood loss and weakness of the liver or lungs.
Sickle cell anemia causes another type of damage to the blood cells. It manipulates red blood cells and forces them to change in shapes and sizes. Therefore, it makes difficult for red blood cells to follow their primary duty – delivering oxygen. Nevertheless, Malaria parasites can get through mutated and shapeshifting blood cells. Therefore, people who have Sickle Cell Anemia are naturally protected for Malaria. Nevertheless, people can be protected from Malaria without Sickle Cell Anemia disease. If you carry a Sickle Cell gene. The only chance to get Sickle Cell Anemia is to inherit it from both parents. Therefore, if sickle gene cells were inherited from one of the parents only, then these people have enough abnormal hemoglobin to resist any intervention from the Malaria side.
Therefore, you can get anti-malaria abilities without fully fledging to the Sickle cell anemia disease. Still, due to Malaria spread, the sickle cell trait has become a naturally selected gene in the areas where people suffer from Malaria. According to statistics, there are 10-40% people who carry this gene in the Malaria areas.
Inuit is a nation that lives in very cold conditions throughout the year. How did they learn to adapt to such harsh environment? Does their genetic code differ from ours? People who were born in cold areas of our planet have different psychological responses to the cold climate. It also seems that genetics also play a role in the adaptation to coldness. It means that even if one man from the south would live for all his life in the cold climate, his body will never reach the same level of adaptation to the cold climate than people who lived there for generations. Scientists found that indigenous Siberians are much better prepared to the coldness of Siberia than non-indigenous Siberians. Even if they lived in this region for decades.
People for whom being in cold places seems natural to have on 50% higher rates of metabolism than people who accustomed to the temperate climates. They can also maintain their body temperature better in cold places. According to researches run by Americans, Inuit people are the most adaptable to the cold climate. The tests were run on many races on the subject of ability to save the temperature of the body on the same level in cold conditions.
This kind of adaptation can partly explain why native Australians can sleep on the bare ground without clothes and shiver. Moreover, it provides no illness to the body at all. Nevertheless, the human body is much more adjusted to the high temperatures. Therefore, it`s quite surprising that people can adapt into different climate zones through generations.
High Altitude Tolerance
Any European who have ever climbed to the Mount Everest couldn`t do that without Sherpa guide. Sherpa often travels ahead of climbers to show and clear the way. Nepalese and Tibetans may not be physically superior to other nations, but they can work in oxygen-depleted sectors without any health issues. How can they work so up high, when regular people can only hope to survive on these heights?
Nepalese and Tibetans are accustomed to living on the height of 4000 meters above the sea. The air on this height contains 40% less oxygen than on sea level. The bodies of local dwellers adapted to the heights by much wider chest and greater lung capacity. It means that they can inhale more air into their lungs. They also evolved to the blood cells level. When natural respond to the lowlanders on heights would be producing more red blood cells, the body of Highlanders does opposite. This reason is that by adding more blood cells to the stream may give you more oxygen, but in long-run it makes your blood thicker, which means blood clots or other lethal complications. Therefore, Highlanders can`t get altitude sickness.
Even if Tibetans live at lower altitudes, they still save the traits. Scientists found the stretch of a gene which occurred in Tibetans. They have a genetic mutation in a stretch of DNA known as EPAS1 which regulates protein. It is also responsible for controlling the production of red cells. Therefore, it explains why Tibetans are more accustomed to living in regions deprived of oxygen.
Their lowland relatives – Han Chinese can`t share the same genetics with Tibetans. The split of these two groups happened at least three thousand years ago. It means that this adaptation occurred not so long ago. It just took one hundred generations to adopt a new set of genes. Still, there is much more to explain for scientists about these people.
Brain Disease Immunity
You wouldn`t like to eat a person, would you? In the matter of fact, cannibalism is a completely immoral deed in the modern world. Moreover, cannibalism can provide a whole bunch of diseases, like brain disease or mad cow disease. The Fore people in Papua New Guinea still follow traditions of cannibalism. Therefore, entire twentieth century, they suffered from an epidemic of Kuru- fatal brain disease which is spread by eating human beings.
Kuru is a prion disease, like mad cow disease. Like all prion diseases, Kuru makes holes in your brain. The patient suffers from a decline of memory and intellect, seizures or personality changes. The infected usually dies within one year after occurring of symptoms. It`s very rare that a person can inherit such a disease, in most cases, it`s spread through eating human flesh and infected animals. Initially, anthropologists did not understand why the disease was spreading so quickly amongst the tribe. It appeared that The Fore had a tradition of mortuary feasts, where mostly women and children could eat their passed away relatives. In the middle of the 20th century, this tradition was prohibited, as it almost illuminated the whole tribe. Nevertheless, not all who suffered from Kuru disease died from it. It occurred that few people survived and even mutated. A new variation in a gene G127V provided them the ability to resist Kuru disease. It should also be mentioned, that they developed this trait in less than a century.
We all known that a universal type of blood is O. It means that this type of blood is compatible with almost every type of blood. Nevertheless, it`s not that simple. According to common knowledge, there are eight basic blood types. It includes A, AB, B and O. Each of these blood types can be positive or negative. Nevertheless, there are 35 blood group systems that currently known to our scientists. The blood which does not come with the variation of ABO system is considered very rare.
The most unusual and rare blood type is RH-null. As it derives from the name, it does not contain antigens in the RH system. The blood is extremely universal as it contains not a single Rh. Studies could only come across with 40 people in the world with Rh-null blood.
Therefore, it`s a universal blood which exists on our planet. Our body can reject any blood, but not this one. There are only nine known donors of this blood in the world. Therefore, it can be used in extremely rare cases.
Most animals are adapted in seeing things clearly in the air or under the water, but not both. We are not water dwellers, so we developed air seeing. If we try to open our eyes under the water, the things will not be clear there. The reason of that is the human`s eye fluids and water have almost the same density. We can see everything with the help of the light; less light adds fuzzy vision. Nevertheless, Moken people managed to develop a clear underwater vision. They can see things clearly under the water even in the depths of 22 meters.
The Moken people live on the water. Their inhabitant places are boats and stilt houses. They only return to the main land to buy necessary items or for trading. They use traditional methods to gather resources from the water. It means no modern diving costumes, masks or air balloons. Children take the responsibility of collecting food. They usually do this through collecting clams and sea cucumbers under the water. Due to this repetitive and constant task, and also genetics, their eyes become adaptable to working under the water. Their eyes can now change their shape under the water. Therefore, it helps them distinguish clams.
Nevertheless, some scientist provided tests that all people can adapt to this kind of vision under the water. The group of European and Moken children tried to show the best results under the water. As it was expected, the Moken children showed a twice sharper vision under the water. Nevertheless, with training sessions, it might be achievable for any child.
Nobody desires to get old, to have all problems connected with the last period of somebody`s life. It also gives us a ton of physical problems, like osteoporosis and loss of bones density, and mass. It`s unpleasant fate for many of us, as it leads to easily broken bones. Nevertheless, there is a group of people who hold a unique gene that might be a cure for osteoporosis.
This gene was discovered in the Afrikaner. It helps people to gain bone mass. To be more specific, it`s a mutation of a gene called SOST, which regulates bone growth. If somebody inherits two copies of mutated gene from both parents, then it leads to sclerosteosis. It also an unpleasant form of mutation which provides disorders, like gigantism, bone overgrowth, facial distortion. Still, if a person inherits only one of the genes, then he/she will not have sclerosteosis throughout the entire life and have a pleasure of especially dense bones.
Many Medical companies try to reach out the medicine that provides intense growth of bones. It may help people to recover from any diseases connected with bones. Moreover, it may help to live through the last period of a human.
It appears that some people can work perfectly with getting less sleep at night. It becomes so unusual for individuals to sleep less than six hours a day. Still many of us can`t drug themselves after eight or more hours of consistent solid sleep.
These people might not be trained for getting less sleep. They might not be tougher than the rest of people. They just have a rare genetic mutation in the gene DEC2. This gene provides the ability of less sleep than usual people.
If regular people start sleeping six or fewer hours, it would be expected for them to get negative impact immediately. Chronic sleep deprivation can lead to diseases, memory loss or even death. It should also be mentioned, that it gives high risks of diseases connected with blood or heart. Nevertheless, people with DEC2 mutation do not have these problems at all. Therefore, they can enjoy staying on late at the parties with almost no consequences for not enough sleeping. There are even cases, when people do not need to sleep at all. They managed to live without sleeping for years. Still, there are only few people on the Earth who can say that.
Most of the people who tells that they get less than eight hours sleep and feel Ok – are not happy owners of DEC2 mutation. This genetic anomaly is extremely rare and was only found in less than 1% of self-proclaimed non-sleepers.
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