What do the tendency of aging of the population consist in and how do the longevity influence on it? Is birth rate in the countryside is higher than in the big cities? Read the information below to learn more.
Aging population problems and solutions
The aging population is a result of long changes in the nature of reproduction of the population. Aging goes from two parties: because of continuous reduction of a number of children owing to decrease in birth rate, and because of the increase in a number of old people that is promoted with reduction of mortality of these people. A separate problem is a migration changing age structure. Usually, young people migrate, and old people stay. As a result, in places of arrival the population becomes younger, and in places of departure is grows old.
However, the famous demographer in his book states another approach to a problem of aging of the population, without denying migration influence. He claims that aging of the population is caused only by the decrease in fertility as the decline in mortality concerns all ages, not only the senior generations. He believes that only mortality of people in fertile age exerts the impact on the specified process. The number of children depends on them. One more important factor consists in process of the urbanization, which is transferring rural youth to the cities and making the tendency for the lowered number of children in a family. Demographers of the UN adhere to the following classification of societies by the extent of aging: young people are the population, in which there are less than 4% of people of the age of 65 years. A mature society is the one, where there are from 4% to 7% of such people. If their share exceeds 7%, then the population is considered old. People of certain years are considered as people of working-age. People who are older than extreme working-age are referred to the category of elderly individuals.
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The general tendency of change of age structure of the population of all countries in process of decrease in birth rate and growth of average life expectancy is steady growth in the age structure of a share of the population of advanced ages. This process has received the name of the aging population (more precisely, its age structure). The declining in mortality, the growth of average life expectancy and intra-family regulation of childbearing has begun in Europe much earlier than in other regions of the world.
Can longevity cause aging population problems?
The growth of average life expectancy can promote aging of the population only if it happens in the senior age groups of the population, i.e. at the age of more than 60 years. However, in the majority of the countries, the growth of average life expectancy throughout its evolution happened generally only due to declining in mortality in younger and average age groups, while at advanced ages mortality decreased a little, more slowly or hasn't decreased for the entire 20th century at all. In Africa, it was reduced, not increased. Thus, its dynamics slowed down the demographic aging of the population rather than accelerated.
For assessment of the degree of aging of the population, there is the very simple indicator – the specific weight of the population at the age of 60 years and senior (by criteria of the UN – 65 years are more senior) in all population. There is a difference in sizes of an indicator of demographic aging between urban and country people. The country people are much more senior than city inhabitants are despite the fact that the level of birth rate of country people is higher than in the city. Therefore, there have to be more young people in the village, than in the cities. However, in practice, everything is on the contrary. It is the result of migration of younglings from the village to the city.
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