Climate Change latest news. What can a simple Nigerian farmer do to slow it down? What technologies are already created? Learn how to contribute to climate change mitigation right now!
The impact of climate on agriculture is evident and scale. Likewise, agriculture has an important impact on global greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel and equipment used in agriculture and animal husbandry, land reclamation and preparation of land for crops lead to significant greenhouse gas emissions. Сlimate change is an important topic in the modern world.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), agriculture accounts for more than a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. For comparison, the share of agriculture in world GDP is around 4%, which means that greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture are very intense.
An important link between agriculture and climate broadened the political agenda on both issues. Discussions on climate change include agriculture, which at the same time exposed to adverse natural phenomena and which is a source of greenhouse gas emissions and, in the case of changes in production practices, can make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Clevere vegetable gardening planning can really make changes.
What role do innovative agricultural practices and technologies play in climate change mitigation and adaptation? What political and institutional changes will encourage innovation and the dissemination of these practices and technologies in developing countries? These issues are discussed in popular study ‘Agricultural technology for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries: policy options for the dissemination of innovations and technologies’ and also the subsequent article, based on the material, was published in ‘Food Policy’ magazine in 2012.
The impact of climate change on agricultural production
Prediction of climate change - this is an important but imperfect, complex and often contradictory process. Despite the ongoing debate, the experts reached a consensus that the rate of annual temperature will increase. It will also show changes in the amount of precipitation in combination with more volatile intra of synoptic situation. Forecasters agree that the climate in many developing countries will be less suitable for the current agricultural practices as well as areas where now it is warm and humid, there will be in a less advantageous place than areas with a cold climate at the moment (mainly in the north ). Although the exact nature of these changes is not clear, it is obvious that they lead to a modification of models of the world by changing the relative strengths, productivity and price.
Some agricultural production in the mid-latitude North America, Europe and Asia can benefit from higher average temperatures and a long growing season, while agriculture of most of the rest areas of the world is likely to suffer from reduced productivity. This study is constantly updated, and recent studies show that the grain harvest in mid-latitude regions may be more vulnerable than scientist have previously thought. Increasing temperature in the already warm regions is likely to lead to a decrease in yields and thereby reduce the planting season due to long hot periods.
In 2010, the best researches in the field of agronomic and economic simulations have argued that the overall impact of these effects will reduce the world agricultural production by 6% by 2080, relative to the expected production in the absence of climate change. Of course, the regional differences of the average values are also significant. For example, without an increase in innovations India and Africa are bound to decrease agricultural production by 30% or more even in the absence of climate change.
Given expectations of higher temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns, control of water supply and improving the efficiency of irrigation and access to it are very important tasks. Impacts of climate change will become a burden on the currently irrigated areas and may even exceed the capacity of irrigation because of the general lack of water. However, the most vulnerable (facing the volatility in precipitation) are the farmers, who do not have access to irrigation systems.
It is expected that the availability of water for farms in the Middle East, North Africa and South and Central Asia will decline as climate change and population growth for several decades. In particular, African farmers are in desperate need of technique, technology and investment, which would increase the efficiency of water use and access to irrigation systems, or in the methods of raising revenue at more assured and stable water supply.
Developing countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change, because they are heavily dependent on agriculture and are already in relatively warm areas and lack infrastructure creates a need to obtain water from various sources, and the lack of investment in innovation appears too. Moreover, poor regions are already becoming most vulnerable as farming is the main source of their income.
However, the climate is not the only factor affecting the poor countries and poor people. It is expected that with continued rising of incomes and economic development, the number of farms and farmers in developing countries will in any case drop significantly by 2080. In view of these transformations climate changes are likely to occur more quickly.
Some border areas in Africa and India may give up agriculture at all, but not due to increased labor productivity outside the farm, but because of the declining productivity of farming and the growing instability of the production. While reducing the number of people employed in agriculture can help to reduce the vulnerability of the population directly in the face of climate change, political tensions and challenges of urbanization associated with such rapid changes can be particularly problematic.
Agricultural technology, including GM crops
The key challenges for climate change mitigation and adaptation in agriculture are:
1) production of more food;
2) improving the efficiency of production;
3) work in a more volatile operating conditions;
4) reduction of the absolute level of GHG emissions of gases from the production and sale.
Agriultural technologies play a central role in establishing the ability of producers to respond to these key challenges. While most technologies have an impact on the climate, some of them are of particular importance to agriculture and climate change in developing countries.
Some new crop varieties allow farmers to achieve not only higher productivity, but also to be more flexible in relation to climate change. These varieties can adapt to drought and high temperatures, high salinity (eg, due to sea-level rise in coastal areas) and early maturing crops to reduce the growing season and reduce the risk of the effects of extreme weather conditions.
Climate change will also lead to new challenges in the fight against insects and plant diseases. The nuances of the temperature change (for example, increasing the lower threshold temperatures and fewer frosts) may lead to a reduction of rest periods, to accelerate the growth of insects and diseases, as well as to change the dynamics of populations and their resistance.
Grain crops and their varieties that can resist insects and diseases enhance the ability of manufacturers to adapt to climate change. These varieties will help to reduce carbon-emissions by reducing the demand for pesticides and the number of their application.
These promising new varieties, a lot of of which are under development, may be derived by conventional selection methods that take advantage of existing varieties, well adapted to the conditions of the local media production, and, last but not least, with the help of modern biotechnologies, such as marker selection and genetic modification.
While agricultural biotechnology are the subject of dispute, these methods provide a promising set of tools that allowed to increase the productivity and reduce the cost of production and the intensity of the use of production resources. Among the new cultures that improve agriculture and reduce emissions - GM crops that are resistant to attack of insects and tolerant to herbicides.
Some have questioned the reality of these benefits, but the fact that farmers around the world have never been so fast to implement agricultural technology, as in the case of GM crops, says the opposite. In 2012, such cultures are grown on about 12% of the world's arable land.
Total direct and indirect emission of reductions from the use of GM crops was 26.7 kg of CO2, which is comparable to the withdrawal of the use of nearly 12 million cars. New varieties and cultures will play an important role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, but the range of existing methods and techniques is much wider. Among them is the rational use of water, manufacturing practices, post-harvest technology, information technology, forecasting and insurance. As mentioned in our previous review, understanding and innovation policy issues arising from the use of a wider range of agricultural practices and associated technologies are important, as the response to climate change requires a ‘rush’ approach.
Creating the necessary agricultural technologies and their use for the adaptation of agricultural systems of developing countries to climate change will require political and institutional innovation on different levels. Obstacles on the way of the development, dissemination and use of appropriate technology may appear on several levels - from the stages of creation and innovation to the stage of technology transfer and access to agricultural innovation by vulnerable small-scale farmers in different developing countries.
Potential obstacles to innovation exist in both the public and private sector in developing and developed countries. While the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has been a major source of innovation in developing countries for almost 40 years, in a lot of countries, the direct intervention of the state in the regulation of foreign and domestic agricultural markets have already ‘killed’ the formation of rapidly developing private companies and related innovation undertakings.
So vegetable gardening tips include working on technologies and resources that can help our nature. Let’s not to forget where we live and save this place. If you want to become a farmer, learn all the opportunities and ways to get income and help our planet.
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