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If Kosovo, Why Not Palestine?

If Kosovo, why not Palestine?

In American and EU eyes, a Kosovar declaration of independence from Serbian sovereignty should be recognized, even if Serbia does not agree. However, their attitude was radically different when Palestine declared independence from Israeli occupation on 15 November 1988. Then the US and EU countries (which, in their own eyes, constitute the "international community", to the exclusion of most of mankind) were conspicuously absent as over 100 countries recognized the new State of Palestine, and their non-recognition made this declaration of independence "symbolic", unfortunately for most Palestinians as well.

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chidichris i dont remember saying anything about the iranian president and some hausas are originally from nigeria.

as for you 4him i'll reply you later

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The wishes of the arab league you say? Here it is - The Arab Heads of State have agreed to unite their political efforts at the international and diplomatic level to eliminate the effects of the aggression and to ensure the withdrawal of the aggressive Israeli forces from the Arab lands which have been occupied since the aggression of June 5. This will be done within the framework of the main principles by which the Arab States abide, namely, no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it, and insistence on the rights of the Palestinian people in their own country.

That is culled from the Khartoum resolutions of Sept 1, 1967 which is readily available via google.

What arrangements do you envisage should be made that requires Israel to give up yet more land? What lands shld it give up?

Do you plan to argue that the Saudi Kings of Jordan gives up an inch of the 85% of the mandate of palestine they presently hold?

When these lands were in the hands of Jordan and Egypt for 19yrs were u asking them to give it up?

The most galling bit of your entry is your idea that Israel's existence is contingent on the desires of the arab league.

The very same arab league who encamped around Israel to destroy her in 1948 and 1967?

We already know the "desires of the arab league" . . . it is expressed in the Hamas article, Hisbullah's constitution, Syria's non-recognition of Israel, the fact that no jew is allowed within the borders of Jordan and Saudi Arabia, Ahmedinejad's wish that Israel be pushed into the sea and the PLO's mantra of "from the Jordan to the sea, palestine will be free".

Pretty easy to figure out what those desires are really except to those like you who hate the truth.

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i never said the hausa fulani are not from nigeria but that most of the area they occupy was not originally theirs.

and i definitely don't support wiping out isreal,an arrangement could be made where isreal gives up some parts of the land in question ande abide by the desires of the arab league.

well as for the hausa fulani question,we can leave that to the kanuris

Dranoel,

i am telling you that here i nigeria, it is believed that the funalis com from chad and niger respectively so do u think we shld leave our own problem for other people's problem.

arrangements could be made according to you, by who and when? does it mean u don't have a soltion?

the desire of the arabs u said, was represented by the iranian president and hamas which called for the eradication of the jews and no right of existance respectively.

do u know that palestine in their demand is calling for total withdrawal? we must not talk or say something because is a free forum rather let us discuss topics we have information about.

i challange all that are calling isreal's heads here to go back my questions and answer them but non i know can do that simply because of lack of information.

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i never said the hausa fulani are not from nigeria but that most of the area they occupy was not originally theirs.

and i definitely dont support wiping out isreal,an arrangement could be made where isreal gives up some parts of the land in question ande abide by the desires of the arab league.

well as for the hausa fulani question,we can leave that to the kanuris

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afam and co, someone said here,"back it with points"

it is believed here in nigeria that the fulanis are not nigerians but non of us have said anything on how they will leave nigeria to no where or how they shld be wiped out of the surface of the earth.

i think we can give answers to questions, isrealis are not supposed to be where they are, then where are they surposed to be?

they are occupants then where are they from?

isrealis shld leave palestine then to where?

no one has ever answered these questions except the iranian president who wants the isrealis to be wiped out of the surface of the earth.

i know answers will not come in respect to these questions rather wise men will reply with insults.

people shld learn how to ask and answer questions in arguements as that is the only way to convince your oponents

Dranoel,

the above represents my previous contribution which has unanswered questions hence i have decided to carry it over.

i want to believe you know ur history and ur opponents too because both sides are doing well to convience all but i would love to ask u, what is the solution?

where are the huasa fulanis in nigeria from?

why are we not fighting to send them back to niger or chat as the case maybe or is palestine and isreal more important to us?

if tomorrow the whole world accept that isreal shld go, where do u think they shld go to? or do u belong to the school of thought that says wipe them out?

i will apreciate the gentlity in you if answers will come in respect to these few questions and possibly throw ur likely questions at me.

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What a load of tosh. Tear their wishy washy propaganda dressed up as arguments to shreds and they call you a jew. Should we also call you an arab?

Dishonesty is the hallmark of most of you supporters of "palestine" . . . you cry so hard to kick out the Jews while the Saudis ruling over Jordan are allowed to get away with theft of more than 85% of this mandate you claim for the arabs.

Just where were u all when Jordan was in control of the WestBank for 19yrs? Didnt the Palestinian arabs deserve a state then?

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@4him

theres no point going on with you,seems you are jewish and i dont think you can see reason

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Very risible argument. If i buy a land, is it wrong to build a house, wall off the compound and call it my own? Would you support the landlord trying to lob rockets into the compound and accusing me of "illegal occupation"?

What if i called in the police? would that be an example of a "disproportionate response"?

Lets be candid, the jews bought land in Israel but a lot of the land already belonged to Jews in the first place. Palestinian arabs are yet to show us tangible proof that they have a history on that land that goes beyond 1900.

First Jordan (a 95% arab palestinian nation) was carved out of the existing land (a whopping 85%) in 1922 and given to Saudi Princes. Up until then there was nothing like Jordan.

Secondly the UN now decided to set up both an Israeli state and ANOTHER arab state side by side on the meagre 15% that was left. Israel accepted the unfair decision, the arabs? Your guess is as good as mine, more than 22 arab nations attacked Israel in 1948 and consequently lost the war.

This was precisely what happened in 1948, we all know (well except for mooslims and arabs) who spurned that chance in favour of exterminating what was left of the jews.

The US does not need to carve out land for the jews . . . pretty much everything from archeology to history depicts the jewish heritage of that land. Palestinian arabs have absolutely no ties to the land besides being immigrants.

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@4him

after isreal bought those lands,they then decided with the help of the west to declare a state which in my opinion was wrong,if the ibos buy land in lagos(up to 80%) and wake up one day to declare lagos as an ibo state will the yorubas take it lightly?

the thing is a paleswtinian state should have been declared first then a little portion given to the isrealis (much like what obtains in italy with the vatican) and if the us feels so concerned they can carve out a 51st state from their large land and give it to the jews(remember australia)

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continue this talk 2morrow i'm getting late

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How come Israel is then accused of "illegally occupying" Palestine?

Straw man alert!

Should we also send the Jordanians back to Mecca seeing they even occupy more than 5 times the size of Israel?

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so how come there was talk of them buying lands from the arabs to come back.

guy do you know the land area of ancient timbuktu? and do you know the area they are now occupying?

stop bringing historical maps to this issue,do you know the present occupants of england now werent the original natives?

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Israel, as a nation, has been well defined for 3000yrs.

They have always had a distinct culture, well defined boundaries and maps dating back to more than 2000yrs ago . . .

You can cry from now till next yr.

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the jewish state has been in existence for 3000yrs?

and how long has the kanem bornu empire been in existence? yet parts of it are now occupied by hausas and fulanis,what of the original oyo empire(present day ilorin) that was captured by the fulanis?should we now try and reclaim the old oyo nempire?

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DRANOEL, there are two scenarios to looking at your question.

- The jewish state has been in existence for 3000yrs, it was only officially recognised by the UN in 1948 . . . on the other hand there has never been a palestinian arab state at any point in time. Can you please tell us who was the palestinian arab president in 1960 when the "occupied" lands were in the hands of Egypt and Jordan?

- Let us even assume that the jewish state was transplanted into the middle east from Europe (as is the fatally flawed argument of the propaganda theorists), why is everyone hanging on the tail coats of Israel which occupies a mere 15% of the British mandate of Palestine?

Jordan NEVER existed as an arab nation at any point in history, was given to the Hashemite descendants of the Emir of Mecca (which is as far away from Palestine as you can possibly get), occupies 85% of the former british mandate of palestine, killed 70,000 "palestinian" arabs and drove thousands out in 1970 (black september), once occupied the "disputed territories for 19yrs . . . and YET not a single person is calling on the Jordanians to leave their "ancestral" lands and go back to Mecca from whence they came?

Do you still deceitfully mean to tell us this is all about land?

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@4him

a jewish state that came into existance when?

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I doubt if i'm derailing but more like you want to force-fit the arab propaganda u've swallowed hook, line and sinker.

Look back at the history books you posted earlier (even though u've deceitfully edited out the most important parts prior to 1400 AD) . . . the arabs led by sallahdin attacked Jerusalem in 638 AD, if you are honest with your history you would know that Jews remained an integral part of Jerusalem and Israel even during the moslem rule.

The arabs were sacked from Israel by the crusaders in 1099 AD . . .

The Ottoman TURKS finally took over until their empire was dismantled by the British during/after world war 1.

Several things are pertinent to note . . .

- Where were the arabs you claim were on ground at that point in time? Perhaps you want to read a bit about the arab migration that started around 1917 when the Brits took over the mandate of Palestine.

- The TURKS were moslems but not arabs. So i don't get were you erroneously assume that arabs were always in control of Israel.

- Several historical accounts of Israel prior to the early 1900s indicate it was a wasteland (please read Mark Twain's write up in the middle 1800s that i posted earlier but you people prefered to ignore) . . . where were the arabs?

- Census figures taken by Ottoman turks indicate Jews remained the majority ethnic group in Jerusalem (again i made reference to this in an earlier post which you chose to ignore since it does not jive with arab propaganda).

- Jordan is today controlled by the hashemite descendant of the Emir of Mecca, Saudi Arabia . . . i don't hear you asking him to go back so the "palestinian" arabs can have back 85% of the British mandate of Palestine that is today the nation of Jordan.

- Israel sits on a mere 15% of the mandate . . . why is that tiny sliver of land so important to moslems and arabs?

- Final conclusion . . . it has NOTHING to do with land (Jordan and Egypt had these lands from 1948-1967 and no one cried for a palestinian nation) but more to do with a deep seated evil desire to remove the Jewish nation of Israel.

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seems you are now derailing,the whole point i have been trying to make is that the arabs at certain point in history were the ones on ground in that area,the jews now coming back to forcibly take it back is just not right!

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DRANOEL, we know the history already. you seem to be cherry picking what points of history u want to start from.

Let us take a hypothetical approach, if the Jews must leave the 15% portion of the former mandate of palestine (all of which has always been historically theirs), do we also demand that the King of Jordan and all his subjects move back to Mecca from whence they came from?

Afterall no one seems to be bugging the Jordanians who never even existed prior to 1922 and occupy a whopping 85% of the former mandate of Palestine.

Oh bah humbug, lets just worry the poor little jews.

Oh but wait . . . i remember a certain black semptember in the 1970s when the Jordanians kicked out the "palestinian" arabs . . . they dont seem to be interested in demanding a right of return back to jordan now are they?

Oh well, Arafat himself was Egyptian so God knows his descendants will be more interested in barging Egypt for a right of return.

Ah its the jewish lands we all want, it doesnt matter if we turn history upside down.

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1400 - 1962

15th-19th Century

Palestine under Ottoman rule as part of (southern) Syria.

1851

The area of northwest Trans-Jordan, from the Yarmuk to the Zarqa' rivers organised as the qada' of Ajlun with its capital at Irbid and attached to the mutasarrifiyya of the Hawran in Syria.

1876

First Ottoman parliament convened in Constantinople and the first Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem elected.

1880

Ottoman administration created mutasarrifiyya of Jerusalem.

1881

Nov.: Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire excl. Palestine.

1882

Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris begins financial backing of Jewish colonisation in Palestine. Beginning of the first wave of Zionist mass immigration to Palestine.

July: Ottoman government adopts policy: allows Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine but not to settle.

1884

March: Ottoman government decides to close Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business but not to Jewish pilgrims.

1888

May: European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do so singly and not in masses.

1891

The first Palestinian protest against Zionist aims.

1892

Novr: Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.

1893

April: European powers presses Ottoman government to permit Jews legally residing in Palestine to buy land provided they establish no colonies on it.

1896

Publication of "Der Judenstaat" by Austrian Zionist leader Theodor Herzl, advocating creation of Jewish state in Argentina or Palestine. Ottoman Sultan Abd-al Hamid II rejects Herzl's proposal that Palestine be granted to the Jews: "I cannot give away any part of it (the Empire) , I will not agree to vivisection."

1897

Aug.: First Zionist Congress, meeting in Basel, Switzerland, issues the Basel Program on Colonization of Palestine and establishes the World Zionist Organization (WZO). In response to First Zionist Congress, Abd-al Hamid II initiates policy of sending members of his own palace staff to govern province of Jerusalem.

1898

- A section of old city wall was removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on their visit to Jerusalem.

- Arabic press reacts to First Zionist Congress. The Cairo journal "Al-Manar" warns that Zionism aims to take possession of Palestine.

1900

Keren Keyemeth (Jewish National Fund) founded as land-acquisition organ of WZO with the function of acquiring land in Palestine to be inalienably Jewish with exclusively Jewish labour employed on it.

1904

Publication of "Le Reveil de la Nation Arabe", by Najib Azoury, warning of Zionist political aims in Palestine.

1908

Palestinian journal "Al-Karmil" founded in Haifa for the purpose of opposing Zionist colonisation.

1910

Arabic newspapers in Beirut, Damascus and Haifa express opposition to Zionist land acquisition in Palestine.

-Arab Women's organization founded in Jaffa.

1911

Jan.: Palestinian journalist Najib Nassar publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism, entitled "Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance".

Feb.: Palestinian newspaper "Filastin" begins addressing its readers as "Palestinians" and it warns them about consequences of Zionist colonisation.

1913

First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.

1914

Aug. 1: Outbreak of World War I.

Nov. 5: The Ottoman state enters the war on the side of Germany.

Chaim Weizmann writes ", as a British dependency we could have in 20 to 30 years a million Jews out there - perhaps more, they would , form a very effective guard for the Suez Canal."

1915

July 14: Correspondence begins between Sherif Hussein of Mecca and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt.

Aug. 21: Jamal Pasha, Ottoman military governor, has the first group of martyrs of the Arab nationalist movement executed in Beirut.

- Herbert Samuel, future High Commissioner of Palestine, in a memorandum entitled `The Future of Palestine', proposes ", the British annexation of Palestine [where] we might plant 3 or 4 million European Jews."

1916

Jan. 30: Hussein-McMahon correspondence concluded with Arabs understanding it as ensuring postwar independence and the unity of Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, include. Palestine.

May: Jamal Pasha has 21 Arab leaders and intellectuals, incl. 2 Palestinians, hanged in Beirut and Damascus.

May 16: The British and French Governments sign secret Sykes-Picot Agreement dividing Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire into French and British administered areas.

June 10: Sherif Hussein proclaims Arab independence from Ottoman rule on the basis of his correspondence with McMahon. Arab revolt against Constantinople begins.

Oct. 2: Sherif Hussein is proclaimed as "King of the Arab Countries" and performs the ceremony of the bai'a, the traditional Arab custom in which the investiture is accompanied by a formal declaration of allegiance.

1917

Aug.: Sir Edwin Montagu, the only Jewish member of the British Cabinet, writes in a secret memorandum: "Zionism has always seemed to me a mischievous political creed, it seems to be inconceivable, that Mr. Balfour should be authorised to say that Palestine was to be reconstituted as the national home for the Jewish people, I assume that it means that Mohammedans and Christians are to make way for the Jews, and that the Jews should be put in all positions of preference."

Nov. 2: British Foreign Sec. Arthur James Balfour sends letter (the Balfour Declaration) to Baron de Rothschild pledging British support for establishment of Jewish national home in Palestine.

Dec. 9: Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.

1918

May 8: First Islamic-Christian Association established in Yaffa; headed by Haj Ragheb Abu Suud Al-Dajani.

Oct. 3: Damascus captured by Arab forces under Amir Faisal.

Oct. 8: Beirut falls to General Allenby's forces.

Oct. 30: End of World War I.

1919

Jan.: Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.

Jan. 27-Feb. 10: First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends 2 memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.

June-July: Henry King and Charles Crane, US members of International Commission of Inquiry, proceed to Middle East alone after failure of Britain and France to join the Commission set up to examine the wishes of the people of Palestine. The findings of the King-Crane Commission were kept secret for 3 years and were not published until 1947.

1920

March: General Syrian Congress proclaims independence of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Transjordan, with Prince Faisal as king.

April: British remove Musa Kazim al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem, from office for opposing their pro-Zionist policies. San Remo Peace Conference assigns the Mandate for Palestine to Great Britain.

April 25: The San Remo Conference awards administration of the former Turkish territories of Syria and Lebanon to France and of Palestine and Transjordan and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to British.

May 15: Second Palestinian National Congress held in Damascus.

July 1: British civilian administration inaugurated; Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first High Commissioner.

Dec. 13-19: Third Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Haifa, elects Executive Committee which remains in control of Palestinian political movement from 1920-1935.

1921

Establishment of the Supreme Muslim Council; Haj Mohammed Amin al-Husseini appointed by the British as head of the Council

April: Prince Abdullah Ibn Hussein becomes Prince (Amir) of Trans-Jordan.

May 29-June 4: Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convening in Jerusalem, decides to send Palestinian delegation to London to explain Palestinian case against Balfour Declaration.

May 1: Outbreak of disturbances in Jaffa protesting against Zionist mass immigration.

1922

June 3: The British government issues White Paper on Palestine excl. Transjordan from scope of Balfour Declaration.

June 30: US Congress endorses Balfour Declaration.

July 24: League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine without consent of Palestinians.

Aug. 20: Fifth Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists.

Oct.: First British census of Palestine shows total population of 757,182 (11% Jewish).

1923

Feb. 16: Sixth Palestinian National Congress, held in Yaffa

Sept. 29: British Mandate for Palestine comes officially into force.

1924

Al-Nahda Women's Association founded in Ramallah.

1925

Polish Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky forms Revisionist Party with aim of "revising" Mandate to include colonisation of Transjordan.

Establishment of Palestinian Workers' Society (PAWS) as a moderate trade union movement led by Sami Taha.

March: Palestinian general strike to protest against private visit by Lord Balfour to Jerusalem.

Oct.: 6th Palestinian National Congress convened in Jaffa.

1928

June 20-27: Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened in Jerusalem; established a new 48-member Executive Committee.

Nov.: Islamic Conference, meeting in Jerusalem, demands protection of Muslim property rights at Wailing Wall, itself a Muslim holy site.

1929

Aug. 28-29: Palestinian uprising in several towns in reaction to militant demonstrations at Wailing Wall. At least 3 women martyrs: Jamila al-Ashqar, Aisha Abu Hassan, and Azzizeh Salameh.

Oct. 26: First Arab Women's Union in Palestine founded in Jerusalem, headed by Zalikha al-Shihabi.

Oct. 26-29: First Palestinian Arab Women's Conference held in Jerusalem with at least 300 in attendance and followed by a demonstration and a meeting with High Commissioner to protest British policy.

1930

March: British-appointed Shaw Commission of Inquiry reports on 1929 disturbances.

Oct.: Sir John Hope-Simpson appointed to inquire into problems of land settlement, immigration and development in Palestine.

Oct. 21: The MacDonald government published the Passfield White Paper, which stated: Jewish immigration and land purchases should stop.

1931

Nov. 18: Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish).

Dec. 16: Pan-Islamic Congress held in Jerusalem and attended by 145 delegates from all parts of the Muslim World.

1932

January: First meeting of the Congress Executive of Nationalist Arab Youth held in Jaffa, chaired by Issa al-Bandak.

Aug. 2: Formation of Istiqlal (Independence) Party as first regularly constituted Palestinian political party; Awni Abdul-Hadi elected president.

1933

Establishment of the Arab Agricultural Bank to grant loans to fellahin (from the 1940s: called the Bank of the Arab Nation).

April 15: Arab women march to holy sites in protest of Lord Allenby's visit. Tarab Abdul Hadi speaks in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Matiel Mogannam in the Dome of the Rock mosque warning of the replacement oif Arab population of Palestine with Jewish immigrants.

Oct.: Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem protesting against British pro-Zionist policies.

1934

Feb.: Special commission of inquiry reports on causes of 1933 disturbances.

Nov. 4: National Defence Party (al-Hizb al-Difa’a al-Watani) established in Jerusalem; chaired by Ragheb Nashashibi.

Dec 16: Last meeting of the Arab Executive Committee established at the 1928 Seventh Palestinian National Congress.

1935

March 27: Official establishment of the Palestine Arab Party (al-Hizb al-Arabi al-Filastini) in Jerusalem; Jamal al-Husseini elected as president.

May 10: Second meeting of the Congress Executive of Nationalist Arab Youth held in Haifa.

June 23: Announcement of The Reform Party (al-Hizb al-Islah) in Jenin; run by three secretaries: Hussein al-Khalidi, Mahmoud Abu Khadra, and Shibli al-Jamal.

Oct. 5: Announcement of formation of The National Bloc (al-Kutlah al-Wataniyah) in Nablus; led by elected Abdul Latif Salah.

Oct.: Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organisation) founded by dissident members of Haganah; Jabotinsky named Commander-in-Chief.

Nov.: Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam, leading first Palestinian guerrilla group, dies in action against British security forces.

1936

Arab Women's Organization founded in Jenin.

April: Arab Higher Committee established.

April 16-18: Revolts all over Palestine, largest confrontations in Jaffa.

April 20-30: National Committees established in all Palestinian towns and large village. Great Rebellion begins.

May 8: Conference of all National Committees, meeting in Jerusalem, calls for no taxation without representation. General strike begins.

Oct. 29: The government of Iraq deposed by a military coup d'etat headed by Bakir Sidqi, an army officer. The new government - principally Hikmat Sulayman and Bakir Sidqi - hastens to deny allegations that their government not truly Arab, but Kurdish-Shi'ite.

1937

July 7: Publication of Royal (Peel) Commission's Report recommending partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states.

Sept.: Arab National Congress, held in Bludan, Syria, and attended by 450 delegates from Arab countries, rejects partition proposed by Peel Commission.

Oct. 1: British Mandate Government dissolves the Arab Higher Committee and all national Committees, deports six of its members.

1938

Jan.: Nuri Said, Prime Minister (PM) of Iraq, visits London with a plan for Middle East and Palestine envisaging an Iraqi-led Arab Federation, with Jews guaranteed minority rights inside Palestine as well as and the right to emigrate to any country within the Federation.

Oct. 15-18: Women's Conference in Cairo on the Question of Palestine attended by women from all over Palestine.

Nov. 9: Technical Commission of Inquiry, under chairmanship of Sir John Woodhead, publishes report stating impracticality of partition proposal by Peel.

July: Evian Conference called by Roosevelt to urge countries to receive Jews persecuted.

1939

Feb.: Round Table Conference on Palestine at St. James' Palace, London, followed by 1939 White Paper restricting Jewish immigration and land buying.

Feb. 23: Sadhij Nassar (wife of Najib Nassar, owner of Al-Karmel newspaper) is first woman arrested under British Defence Emergency Regulations, and held for 18 months.

May: The "MacDonald White Paper" disclaims any intention to create a Jewish state, and places restrictions on Jewish immigration and land purchase and envisages an independent state in Palestine within 10 years.

Sept. 3: Outbreak of World War II.

1940

Oct. 10: British Government authorises the Jewish Agency to recruit 10,000 Jews to form Jewish units within the British Army.

Nov. 25: British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine. Zionists sink the ship and 250 Jews drown.

1942

Jan.: Dr. Chaim Weizmann writes in "Foreign Affairs", urging the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine after the war.

May: Zionist Biltmore Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating "Jewish Commonwealth" in Palestine and organising Jewish army.

1944

Nov. 6: Stern Gang assassinates Lord Walter Moyne, British resident Min. of State in Cairo.

Dec. 12-16: First Arab Women's Conference held in Cairo.

1945

March 22: Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasising Arab character of Palestine, signed in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan and Yemen.

June 26: United Nations (UN) established, San Francisco.

Aug. 31: Pres. Truman asks British PM Clement Attlee to grant immigration certificates allowing 100,000 Jews into Palestine.

Sept.: British government issues Defence Regulations authorising military rule in Palestine.

Dec.: The Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine. A special office is established to prevent such goods from being smuggled into Arab countries.

1946

May: Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry publishes report on the admission of 150,000 Jewish immigrants into Palestine.

May: First Arab Summit meeting in Anshas, Egypt.

July 22: Irgun and Stern Gang Zionist groups blow up King David Hotel, Jerusalem.

July 24: British issue special White Paper on Terrorism in Palestine accusing Jewish Agency of being involved in acts of terrorism with Irgun and Stern Gangs.

July 31: Anglo-American Conference, meeting in London, proposes a federal scheme for solving the Palestine problem known as Morrison-Grady Plan.

1947

Feb. 18: British Foreign Sec. Ernest Bevin announces British submission of Palestine problem to UN.

April 4: The Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party founded in Damascus.

May 15: UN Special Session ends with the appointment of an 11-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP), the 11th commission of inquiry appointed since 1919.

Sept. 8: Publication of UNSCOP report: the majority of members recommended partition, and a minority a federal solution.

Sept. 29: Arab Higher Committee for Palestine announces rejection of UN partition plan.

Oct. 2: Jewish Agency announces acceptance of UN partition plan.

Oct. 11: US endorses UN partition plan.

Oct. 13: Soviet Union endorses UN partition plan.

Nov. 29: UN Partition Res. 181 includes the recommendations that Jaffa be part of the proposed Palestinian state and that Jerusalem and Bethlehem be a corpus separatum under a special international regime administered by the Trusteeship Council on behalf of UN.

1948

April 8: Abd al-Qadir Husseini killed in counter-attack at Qastel, western suburb of Jerusalem, without any military reason or provocation of any kind.

April 9: Irgun and Stern Gangs lead by Menahem Begin and Yitzhaq Shamir massacre 245 Palestinians in the village of Deir Yassin, western suburb of Jerusalem.

April 11: Haganah destroy village of Kalonia near Qastel and occupy Deir Yassin.

April 30: All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah and Palestinians were driven out.

May 2: The Jewish Agency completes mobilisation of Jewish manpower.

May 13: UN appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator to resolve conflict in Palestine.

May 14: State of Israel proclaimed in Tel-Aviv at 4:00 p.m.

May 15: British Mandate ends.

- The Arab States dispatch around 25,000 of their armed forces to Palestine.

- The Haganah, made up of 60,000 to 70,000 trained members become the backbone of the Israeli Army.

May 15-17: USA and USSR recognise Israel.

June 28: Bernadotte's first peace plan: Jerusalem to be Arab.

July 5: Ben-Gurion, replying to Moshe Sharett, with regard to allowing the return of Arabs to Jaffa: "The Prime Minister opposes the return of Arab residents to their localities so long as the fighting continues and the enemy is at our gates. The PM is of the opinion that only the cabinet as a whole can decide to alter this policy."

July 7: Mount Scopus area in Jerusalem divided into 3 sectors: a Jewish sector (incl. the Hadassah Hospital and Hebrew University, which were completely isolated from Israel); an Arab sector (the village of Issawiya); and a third sector incl. the Arab Augusta Victoria Hospital.

Sept. 1: Palestinian National Conference in Gaza. Formation of All-Palestine Government.

Sept. 17: UN Mediator Count Folke Bernadotte assassinated in Jerusalem.

Sept.: Ben-Gurion notifies Moshe Sharett that he was told by the commander of the central front that it would be necessary to destroy portions of 14 Arab villages lying east of Lod [Saffariyya, Haditha, Innaba, Daniel, Jimzu, Kafr Onno, Yahudiyya, Barfiliyya, Birya, Qubab, Beit Nabala, Deir Sherif, Tira, Qula], "because of the shortage of manpower to hold the area and to fortify it in depth it is urgently necessary to create defence bases , "

Oct. 1: All-Palestine Government announces Palestinian independence.

Oct. 15: The recognition of the All-Palestine Government by Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.

Dec. 1: Jericho conference composed of notables and mayors indicates the West Bank's approval of unity with Jordan.

Dec. 11: UN Gen. Assembly Res. 194 (III): the right of Palestinian refugees to return.

Dec. 20: Sheikh Hussam Addin Jarallah appointed Mufti of Jerusalem (replacing Haj Amin Husseini); Amin Abdul-Hadi appointed head of the Supreme Muslim Council in Jerusalem.

1949

Feb.-July: Armistice agreements signed in Rhodes, without prejudice to the settlement of the Palestine Question, between Israel and Egypt (24 February), Lebanon (23 March), Transjordan (3 April) and Syria (20 July).

May: Israel conditionally admitted to UN.

May 12: Lausanne Protocol, signed by Israeli and Arab delegates.

May 29: Pres. Truman sends Israel a note blaming it and protesting against its failure to make concessions at the Lausanne conference on the refugee and boundary issues.

June 31: US grants de jure recognition of the unification of the two banks of Jordan.

Nov. 14: All restrictions on movement from west to east of the river Jordan lifted.

Dec. 13: The west part of the City of Jerusalem declared the capital of Israel.

Dec. 19: UN Gen. Assembly Res. 303: Internationalisation of Jerusalem.

1950

March 14: Absentee Property Law; whereby any person who on 29 Nov. 1947 was a citizen or resident of the Arab States or who was a Palestinian citizen who had left his/her place of residence even if to take refuge within Palestine, is classified as an "absentee". Absentee property is vested in the custodian of absentee property who then "sells" it to the Development Authority authorised by the Knesset. The theft of the property of a million Arabs seized by Israel in 1948 is thus authorized.

April 24: Unification of the West Bank and Kingdom of Jordan; Gaza Strip comes under Egyptian administration.

April 27: British government recognises the union between West Bank and Jordan.

May 1: UN Gen. Assembly establishes UNRWA (UN Relief and Works Agency) based on Res. 302 of 3 Dec. 1949.

May 25: The United States (US) joins Britain and France in the Tripartite statement of policy, binding the 3 nations to oppose "the use of force between any states" in the area and to supply only those arms to Israel and Arab countries which needed for "legitimate self-defence".

July: "Law of Return" passed by Knesset whereby any Jew, from anywhere in the world, is entitled to full Israeli citizenship.

Sept. 1: Jordanian Dinar becomes the sole legal currency on both banks of Jordan.

1951

Jan. 2: King Abdullah appoints Ragheb Nashashibi as custodian of the Holy Places with cabinet rank. Government of All-Palestine established in Gaza.

July 20: King Abdullah assassinated in Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.

Sept.: Yasser Arafat reorganizes the Palestinian Students' Union in Cairo.

1952

July 23: Egyptian Revolution.

Aug. 11: Talal of Jordan abdicates; Hussein proclaimed king.

- The Law of Nationality: affirms the Law of Return and legislates that resident non-Jews can acquire citizenship only on the basis of residence if they can prove they are Palestinian or by naturalisation. Palestinian Arabs remaining under Israeli occupation literally became foreigners in their own country as in the conditions of 1952 proving residence was in practice often impossible to fulfil. Most Arab residents had no proof of citizenship many having surrendered their identity cards to the Israeli army during or after the war.

1953

March 31: Dag Hammarskjold elected Sec.-Gen. of the UN.

Oct. 11: Ben-Gurion resigns Israeli premiership to be succeeded by Moshe Sharett.

Oct. 14: Israel, commanded by Ariel Sharon, attacks Qibia in the West Bank killing 53 Palestinians.

Dec.: USSR instructs new envoy to Israel to present his credentials in a formal call on the Israeli Pres. in West Jerusalem.

1954

July: Arrest of Israeli "spy ring" in Cairo and Alexandria.

March: Israeli attack on Nahalin village in the West Bank.

1955

Feb. 2-17: Pinhas Lavon, Israeli Defence Min., resigns.

Feb. 24: Baghdad Pact formally signed by Turkey and Iraq; Israeli army attacks Gaza and Khan Yunis.

Feb.: Jamal Abd el-Nasser forms the first Palestinian fedayeen unit in Egypt.

April: Conference of non-aligned states convened in Bandung, Indonesia.

1956

Feb. 29: King Hussein dismisses General Sir John Glubb, Commander of Arab Legion.

July 26: Pres. Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal.

Oct. 29: Israel, in collusion with Britain and France, invades Sinai Peninsula.

Oct. 31: Kfar Qassim Massacre.

Nov. 2: Israelis occupy Gaza and most of Sinai, attack Qalqilya in the West Bank and massacre villagers of Kafr Qasem in occupied Palestine.

Nov. 21-Dec. 6: Moshe Sharett agrees on negotiation and ratification of Israeli borders with Arab states in his talks with John Foster Dulles.

1957

March 8: Israel withdraws from Sinai and Gaza: UN Emergency Force moves in.

1958

Feb. 1: Egypt and Syria proclaim union as United Arab Republic (UAR).

1959

Jan.: Fatah is established by Yasser Arafat and associates; al-Ard group starts to publish an Arab nationalities periodical in Israel; Khalil al-Wazir [Abu Jihad] issues in Lebanon the clandestine Fatah magazine Filastinuna; the Arab Higher Committee and Amin al-Husseini forced to move from Egypt to Lebanon.

June 15: UN Sec. Gen. (Hammarskjold) proposal, A/4121 for absorption of Palestinian refugees by the Middle East states.

1960

Jan. 16: Egypt states in the letter of credentials of the new Consul of United Arab Republic in the Old City of Jerusalem, that the Consul was being appointed as the `Consul-General in all the territories located west of the Jordan River, being part of Filistine which was conquered by the Jordanian Army.'

Jan. 16: Jordanian government rejects the credentials of the UAR Consul-General in Jerusalem on the ground that they infringe upon Jordan's sovereignty.

March 27: Abdel Karim Kassem of Iraq announces the formation of the "Palestine Army".

April 26: Pres. Nasser says that "the Palestinian Entity must be preserved because the extermination of the entity would mean the elimination of the Palestinian problem forever."

Oct. 29: The Cairo Sawt al-Arab extends its programme "Filastin Corner" which was to become "Broadcasts of the Voice of Filastin."

1961

Sept. 28: Syrian military coup d'etat breaks up the UAR.

March: The Egyptian Akhbar al-Youm newspaper begins issuing a weekly newspaper called "Akhbar Filastin".

Aug.: Kamal Rifat, a member at the Egyptian Presidential Council contacts Palestinians in Gaza Strip, Jordan and Lebanon and suggests convening a conference to establish the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF).

1962

Oct. 2: Johnson Plan for Palestinian refugee problem.

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Here is something you should know:

1. Jordan was never part of palestine as it never existed prior to 1922 anywhere in history but is merely a creation of the British empire.

2. Jordan refers to the river and valley west of Israel which is mentioned several times in the bible and has NO arab connection (95% of the kingdom of jordan today is arab).

3. The king of Jordan (Abdulla II) is a direct descendant of Al Hussein, the eastwhile Emir of Mecca Saudi Arabia . . . with NO connections whatsoever to land west of Israel.

This is the only relevant portion that you need to understand. As at AD 135 the phillistines had long ceased to exist. History records that well before Christ was born they had been completely destroyed.

Now fast forward to AD 135, the term "palestinian" refered to a jew living in the land of Israel that had been renamed "palestine" by the conquering Roman army.

Not a single connection to arabs.

So back to my question . . . how did arabs suddenly become palestinians?

How did Saudi Arabian royals become custodians of land in Palestine?

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@4him

for your information jordan itself was part of palestine and this arabs you talk about have always been there,when the jews started planning on coming back it was this same arabs who actually sold lands to them and as for the name palestine been attributed to a jew please read following and help me out,mind you this again is from a jewish site

Where did the name Palestine come from?

The name Palestine refers to a region of the eastern Mediterranean coast from the sea to the Jordan valley and from the southern Negev desert to the Galilee lake region in the north. The word itself derives from "Plesheth", a name that appears frequently in the Bible and has come into English as "Philistine". Plesheth, (root palash) was a general term meaning rolling or migratory. This referred to the Philistine's invasion and conquest of the coast from the sea. The Philistines were not Arabs nor even Semites, they were most closely related to the Greeks originating from Asia Minor and Greek localities. They did not speak Arabic. They had no connection, ethnic, linguistic or historical with Arabia or Arabs.

The Philistines reached the southern coast of Israel in several waves. One group arrived in the pre-patriarchal period and settled south of Beersheba in Gerar where they came into conflict with Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. Another group, coming from Crete after being repulsed from an attempted invasion of Egypt by Rameses III in 1194 BCE, seized the southern coastal area, where they founded five settlements (Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gat). In the Persian and Greek periods, foreign settlers - chiefly from the Mediterranean islands - overran the Philistine districts.

From the fifth century BC, following the historian Herodotus, Greeks called the eastern coast of the Mediterranean "the Philistine Syria" using the Greek language form of the name. In AD 135, after putting down the Bar Kochba revolt, the second major Jewish revolt against Rome, the Emperor Hadrian wanted to blot out the name of the Roman "Provincia Judaea" and so renamed it "Provincia Syria Palaestina", the Latin version of the Greek name and the first use of the name as an administrative unit. The name "Provincia Syria Palaestina" was later shortened to Palaestina, from which the modern, anglicized "Palestine" is derived.

This remained the situation until the end of the fourth century, when in the wake of a general imperial reorganization Palestine became three Palestines: First, Second, and Third. This configuration is believed to have persisted into the seventh century, the time of the Persian and Muslim conquests.

The Christian Crusaders employed the word Palestine to refer to the general region of the "three Palestines." After the fall of the crusader kingdom, Palestine was no longer an official designation. The name, however, continued to be used informally for the lands on both sides of the Jordan River. The Ottoman Turks, who were non-Arabs but religious Muslims, ruled the area for 400 years (1517-1917). Under Ottoman rule, the Palestine region was attached administratively to the province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul. The name Palestine was revived after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and applied to the territory in this region that was placed under the British Mandate for Palestine.

The name "Falastin" that Arabs today use for "Palestine" is not an Arabic name. It is the Arab pronunciation of the Roman "Palaestina". Quoting Golda Meir:

The British chose to call the land they mandated Palestine, and the Arabs picked it up as their nation's supposed ancient name, though they couldn't even pronounce it correctly and turned it into Falastin a fictional entity. [In an article by Sarah Honig, Jerusalem Post, November 25, 1995]

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this is the real issue, Palestinians deserve their freedom but from whom? Certainly not Israel.

Who are the "palestinians"? the name palestine is greco-roman, was named after the philistines (who had nothing to do with arabs) and was attributed to a jew living in the area pre-1948.

so who are these arabs now claiming to be palestinians? There was no such clamour for a palestinian state until 1988, when the "occupied territories" were in Jordanian and Egyptian hands where were these "palestinian" arabs?

What land are they now claiming? Can Nigerian refugees show up in Canada demanding "independence"?

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To start with, there have always been Jews in Palestine . . . to continue to perpetuate the lie of Zionist immigration does not make it true.

Yes thousands of jews started migrating back to Israel from all over the world from the 19th century but that shld not be reason to deny that there were thousands more who have ALWAYS lived there.

It was Mark Twain who in the early 1800s declared in his newspaper column that Palestine was a wasteland . . . where were the arabs?

Your question is pretty much a strawman's argument . . . the British opposed our independence too so what is the essence of ur question? That the Brits opposed Israeli immigration to Palestine because it no longer belonged to them?

The most pertinent question you shld be asking is HOW Jordan suddenly became a nation on 85% of the former British mandate of Palestine. There never was a nation called Jordan before then and the first king of Jordan was a hashemite of the saudi royal family. . . .

Rather proganda theorists like you and your ilk would rather cry about the less than 15% of the land that jews currently occupy.

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@4him

this article actually supports isreal but i want you to read between the lines

Why did the British oppose Jewish immigration to Palestine?

Background and History

Early Zionist immigration to Palestine began in the 19th century, while the territory was still under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. After World War I, Britain was awarded the Mandate for Palestine by the League of Nations at the San Remo Conference in 1920, and its terms went into effect by 1923. The terms of the Mandate echoed the Balfour Declaration and Britain was to be responsible for its implementation until the subject region could become a self-governing sovereign country.

The Mandate language included the provision that Britain:

, shall facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions and shall encourage, in co-operation with the [Jewish Agency], close settlement by Jews on the land, including State lands and waste lands not required for public purposes

The Mandate also recognized the "historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine".

This open-ended commitment to the Zionist cause was modified by the British almost from the beginning. In 1922, the Churchill White Paper confirmed the right of Jewish immigration but stipulated that this should not exceed the economic absorptive capacity of the country. Then, in the greatest act of treachery against the Palestine Mandate, the British split the Mandate with all land east of the Jordan River going into an entity called Transjordan, constituting almost 80 percent of the original Mandate. Jewish immigration and Jewish land ownership were forbidden in Transjordan. But that didn't satisfy the Palestinian Arabs and the Arabist British. Even with the unbalanced division in their favor, the Arabs were uneasy with the Mandate's recognition of the Balfour Declaration -- they were adamantly opposed to any Jewish homeland in Palestine.

After Arab rioting in 1929, the Shaw Commission called for a re-examination of immigration policy and the establishment of a scientific inquiry into land usage and potential, the Hope-Simpson Commission. In 1936, the Arabs again staged a revolt in Palestine with stoppage of Jewish immigration as one of their principal demands. In response to the Arab unrest, the British Peel Commission recommended freezing immigration at 12,000 per year for five years and, now viewing Jewish-Arab cooperation as unworkable, also recommended partition. More Arab violence led to the White Paper of 1939 that made concessions to the Arabs on a wide range of issues. The British not only introduced severe restrictions on Jewish immigration (a total of 75,000 to be allowed over the next five years), and forbade land sales to Jews in most areas, but also put pressure on the German, Greek, Yugoslav, Bulgarian and Turkish Governments not to allow "illegal" immigrants into Palestine.

In the late 1930's, when the Jews of Germany and Austria were in great danger, Palestine was closed to them. But under the British rule, it was not closed to thousands of illegal Arab immigrants who continued to pour into Palestine from other parts of the Middle East, attracted by the superior economic conditions created by the Zionists. No wonder Churchill could point out in 1939:

Far from being persecuted, the Arabs have crowded into the country and multiplied until their population has increased more than even all world Jewry could lift up (increase) the Jewish population.

The immigration restrictions were tantamount to a death sentence for countless European Jews. Even after the Holocaust became well-known, Britain's restrictive policy remained in effect in Palestine, and the British administration in Palestine attempted to enforce it, continuing until the end of the Mandate period in 1948.

Implications of the Immigration Restrictions

In the early days of the Mandate, the immigration restrictions were an indication of bad faith by the British with respect to the intent of the Mandate. But immigration did continue and the Jewish population of Palestine continued to increase, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage. The Zionist organizations proceeded to build the infrastructure of a nation through their own hard work and the use of capital provided by Jewish donors from other parts of the world. During the Third Aliya (1919-1923) new immigrants built roads and towns, and projects such as the draining of marshes in the Jezreel Valley and the Hefer Plain were undertaken. The General Federation of Labor (Histadrut) was established, representative institutions for the yishuv were founded (the Elected Assembly and the National Council), and the Haganah (the clandestine Jewish defense organization) was formed. Agricultural settlement expanded, and the first industrial enterprises were established.

In the mid-1920s, Jewish immigration to Palestine increased primarily because of anti-Jewish economic legislation in Poland and Washington’s imposition of restrictive quotas on immigration to the United States. The Fourth Aliya (1924-1929) immigrants were middle class and brought modest sums of capital with which they established small businesses and workshops. Tel Aviv grew. Notwithstanding the yishuv's economic woes, with an economic crisis in 1926 - 1928, the Fourth Aliya did much to strengthen the towns, further industrial development and reinstate Jewish labor in the villages. The British restrictions on immigration slowed but did not halt the process.

By the 1930s, however, the situation began to change. The rise of the Nazi government in Germany in 1933 and the later military conquests by Germany gave Hitler's antisemitic government control over most of the populations of Europe. As the realization grew that the Nazi's were intent on the extermination of Europe's Jews, there was an urgent requirement to emigrate. But most countries closed their doors to immigration, particularly in large numbers. Only Palestine held out the hope of new settlement where Jews would be welcome. Or rather, that would be the case if it were not for the British.

The British resistence to immigration after 1939 was dramatically illustrated in 1941 by the loss of the ship named Struma with 760 Jewish passengers, a tragedy that was entirely caused by British authorities' unmitigated enforcement of their policy against the "illegal" Jewish immigrants fleeing from Hitler's war against them.

After World War II, the impact of British opposition was devestating to Displaced Persons (refugees), recently saved from Hitler's ovens but now in limbo created by international unwillingness to accept them as refugees. The one destination they preferred above all others was Palestine, but entry there was blocked by the British policy. Between August 1945 and the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948, 65 "illegal" immigrant ships, carrying 69,878 people, arrived from European shores. In August 1946, however, the British began to intern those they caught in camps in Cyprus. Approximately 50,000 people were detained in the camps, 28,000 of whom were still imprisoned when Israel declared independence.

Ruth Gruber, an American journalist with close ties to the refugee situation was witness to the incident that became world-famous from Leon Uris' book Exodus

While in Jerusalem, [Gruber] learned that a former American pleasure boat, renamed the Exodus 1947, had attempted to deliver 4,500 Jewish refugees — including 600 children, mostly orphans — but was attacked by five British destroyers and a cruiser. Gruber left immediately for Haifa and witnessed the Exodus entering the harbor, looking, as Gruber wrote, "like a matchbox splintered by a nutcracker."

During the "battle," the British rammed the Exodus and stormed it with guns, tear gas and truncheons. Gruber noted that the crew, mostly Jews from America and Palestine, fought back with potatoes, sticks and cans of kosher meat. The Exodus’s second officer, Bill Bernstein of San Francisco, was clubbed to death trying to prevent a British soldier from entering the wheelhouse. Two orphans were killed, one shot in the face point blank after he tossed an orange at a soldier.

When she learned that the prisoners from the Exodus were being transferred to Cyprus, she flew there overnight. While she waited for the Exodus detainees, she photographed earlier Jewish prisoners living behind barbed wire in steaming hot tents with almost no water or sanitary facilities. "You had to smell Cyprus to believe it," she cabled the New York Herald.

The British changed plans and sent the Exodus prisoners to Port de Bouc in southern France, where they had first embarked. Gruber rushed there from Cyprus. When the prison ships arrived, the prisoners refused to disembark. After 18 days in which the refugees endured the blistering heat, the British decided to ship the Jews back to Germany. World press reaction reflected outrage. While hundreds of journalists descended on Port de Bouc, only Gruber was allowed by the British to accompany the DP’s back to Germany.

Aboard the prison ship Runnymeade Park, Gruber photographed the refugees defiantly raising a Union Jack on which they had painted a swastika. Her photo became Life Magazine’s "Picture of the Week." Crushed together on the sweltering ship, making their way back to Germany, the refugees sang "Hatikvah," the Hebrew song of hope, soon to become Israel's National Anthem.

Gruber’s book Exodus 1947 about the DP’s endurance would later provide Leon Uris with material for his book and screenplay, Exodus, which helped turn American public opinion in favor of Israel.

Why?

With all of the above facts established, the question still "Why did the British act this way?" The English have in the main been friendly to Jews, were the authors of the Balfour Declaration, and even admitted many Jewish refugees during the war years to England itself. So why did they become so ruthlessly hardnosed over the issue of immigration to Palestine in the face of the obvious appalling need?

Herbert Samuel, a British Jew who served as the first High Commissioner of Palestine, placed restrictions on Jewish immigration "in the 'interests of the present population' and the 'absorptive capacity' of the country." The influx of Jewish settlers was said to be forcing the Arab fellahin (native peasants) from their land. This was at a time when less than a million people lived in an area that now supports more than six million.

But throughout the Mandatory period, Arab immigration was unrestricted. In 1930, the Hope-Simpson Commission, sent from London to investigate the 1929 Arab riots, said the British practice of ignoring the uncontrolled illegal Arab immigration from Egypt, Transjordan. Syria and North Africa had the effect of displacing the prospective Jewish immigrants. At the same time that the British slammed the gates on Jews, they permitted or ignored massive illegal immigration into Western Palestine from Arab countries. As noted above, in 1939 Winston Churchill observed, ", far from being persecuted, the Arabs have crowded into the country and multiplied , " How could the British claim that the Zionist settlers were the problem when Arab immigration continued unchecked?

The answer can only be that the British administration was far more sensitive to the Arab's claims than to those of the Jews. In 1939, as World War II opened in Europe, the British needed to coax the Arabs into submissiveness so that the Suez Canal could be maintained in relative tranquility.

During the Struma incident, the British did not want to allow the refugees into Palestine because they were afraid that many more such shiploads of refugees would follow. Also, some British government officials used the often cited excuse against refugees and emigrants: there could be an enemy spy among the refugees.

Then there was oil. Palestine had no oil, but neighboring Arab states were the world's newest and lowest cost suppliers. Oil was first discovered in Iran, and by 1911 a British concern, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC), was producing oil from there. The British found oil in Iraq after World War I. In 1932 Standard Oil Company of California (Socal) discovered oil in commercial quantities in Bahrain. Socal then obtained a concession in Saudi Arabia in 1933 and discovered oil in commercial quantities in 1938.

A flurry of oil exploration activity occurred in the gulf in the 1930s with the United States and Britain competing with one another for oil concessions. One reason for the increased activity was that in 1932 the new Iranian government of Reza Shah Pahlavi revoked APOC's concession. Although the Shah and the British later agreed on new terms, the threat of losing Iranian oil convinced the British in particular that they must find other sources. The small states of the Persian Gulf were a natural place to look. Geological conditions were similar to those in Iran, and, because of treaties signed between 1820 and 1920, the British had substantial influence and could restrict foreign access.

Since the British relied on the Arab (or Arab-supporting) regimes of the Middle East, a pro-Arab policy in Palestine served them best to protect rights to Arab oil, the Suez canal, and British interests in India and beyond.

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I thought the original question was: If Kosovo, why not Palestine? Even the person that asked the question has forgotten and kept rambling on about history of the Arabs.

The comments here show the hypocrisy of human beings and especially Nigerians. You are now all crying for the independent of the Palestinians, which myself also would like to see, but you lot masterminded the killing/starvation of 4 million Biafrans for trying to gain the same independent and freedom.

Even the person that asked this question went even further asking where Biafra was in the history of the world, as if they were chiselled out from a trunk of a tree. Where was Nigeria in the history of the world before it's 1914 cosmetic existence?

If Kosovo deserves freedom, why not Palestinians and if Palestinians of only 3 million people deserve a state, why not Biafrans of more than 35 million people. Hypocrites!!!!!!!!!

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DRANOEL, start reading history from before the 2nd world war.

I'll be back to debunk your lies . . .

No one is surprised, when you repeat a lie often enough it begins to sound like the truth.

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@4him

go ahead and explain to me what happened after the 2nd world war

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That is incredulously false. Have you ever bothered to read your history books?

Did you know that there are documented census of Palestine in 1893 and 1902 clearly indicating that there were a sizeable population of jews in Israel?

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the point is the isrealis were no longer occupying that land till after the world war when the yanks and the brits decided to bring them back and push the arabs out.simple

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afam and co, someone said here,"back it with points"

it is believed here in nigeria that the fulanis are not nigerians but non of us have said anything on how they will leave nigeria to no where or how they shld be wiped out of the surface of the earth.

i think we can give answers to questions, isrealis are not supposed to be where they are, then where are they surposed to be?

they are occupants then where are they from?

isrealis shld leave palestine then to where?

no one has ever answered these questions except the iranian president who wants the isrealis to be wiped out of the surface of the earth.

i know answers will not come in respect to these questions rather wise men will reply with insults.

people shld learn how to ask and answer questions in arguements as that is the only way to convince ur oponents

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@4him

my guy you are clearly missing my point!

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Dranoel, your analogy falls flat in the face of REAL facts of history and not the distorted propaganda diet you all have been fed through the media.

History clearly tells us that Jews were the majority ethnic group in the present land of Israel which is a mere 15% of the 1900 mandate of Palestine.

Arabs invaded Jerusalem in 638 AD and were driven out permanently in 1099 AD. The Ottoman turks who eventually took over that land were and have never been Arabs . . . care to ask them if they want their land bank?

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@4him

the tivs in nigeria are the present dominant occupants of benue being the dominant ethnic group in that area. however it might interest you to know that the original occupants of that are are jukuns and idoma (both tribes being kwararafa tribes). the tivs are actually later day migrants to this area(infact they dont have any relationship with the other kwararafa tribes,hausas or fulanis)they actually came to nigeria from congo through cameroun less than 300years ago. should we now drive the tivs out of benue and reclaim back the land for the idomas,jukuns e.t.c?

should we drive the fulanis out of ilorin and claim the land for the yorubas?

who do you thinki were the original occupants of present day kogi?

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Kobojunkie abeg help me ask JosBoy.

Uncle Jos what has being a republican got to do with BASIC FACTS?

Barak Obama and Clinton are both democrats and have PUBLICLY backed Israel's right to self defence . . .

Like Scopium rightly pointed out, why is it so difficult for you people to back your argument (if u have any valid one) with FACTS? Why resort to attacking the messenger?

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this, however, is not the case with Israel and palestine. History is on the side of the yorubas as having been settled in Lagos for centuries . . . on the other hand Hausas have no such history even though there are a sizeable population in Lagos.

Israel has a history of having lived CONTINOUSLY in their land for 3000 yrs. Palestine, as an arab nation, has NEVER at any point in time existed.

Palestine is not an arab name, NONE of the names of the ancient cities in Israel that are in existence bear any relation to arabs. So on what grounds do the arabs have to come kick out the jews from jerusalem or Bethlehem?

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@4Him

I think your arguments sound quite logical all these other fanatics don't have poo to say. They should come up with facts and not distorted ideologies and propoganda.

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@Dranoel

please Note the fight in palestine is not about lands it is all about the people

should i say ethnic cleansing.

even if u take the isrealis and build a land for them in the ocean the arabs would still claim they should all die

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@all the zionist

i wonder how some of you will feel if all of a sudden some decides hausas first occupied lagos and then goes on to relocate them there,am sure we will certainly have yorubas fighting hausas daily. now reflect that on the isreal situation

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same ol'. Rather than see the truth for what it is they go on a campaign of calumny.

What is the relevance of this to the topic? And we dare criticise our leaders when we ourselves find it so difficult to endure opinions that run contrary to our own views.

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Can;t blame the westicoted & Zionist guy. He is an illegal immigrant probably employed as a chef in the USA.

Remenber the famous Bush slogan on the war on terror "it's either you are with us or against us. A lot the so called allies of the US are afraid of one thing or the other. In the case of 4him deportation is the beginning wisdom.

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Same old story, confound them with facts and they come bleating insults.

this is ridiculous. Was it the US/Israel that refused the UN offer of a palestinian state in 1947?

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Are you new to this forum?

You should have known that Davidylan/4Him/PTH supports anything Israel or US whether right or wrong.

The only reason why Palestine is not an independent state today is because the US/Israel cannot stand it even when they pretend to see it happen.

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Abegi,  no mind the goon. It seems all he does is go around attacking people instead of replying posts as a decent human being would. Somehow he has it in his mind that if he puts people down, he scores himself brownie points of some sort. The dude's MO is to berate anyone who does not agree with his side of the arguement (problem is I am yet to see his side in this case or any) and if you plan to wait for him to actually post some point remotely related to the topic at hand, chances are you will wait forever. Makes you wonder how old he is and if he was raised by a pack of hyenas who fed him insults for breakfast .LMAO!!!

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whenever an individual chooses to reply question(s) with insults, it is obvious he/her lacks answer to the question.

the bottom line is that there are two ways to independence viz; dialogue and violence.

the palestine independence as we are discussing here have chosen both because Abbas(fattah party) are out to discuss while hamas is saying no dialogue.

in either way, God is great. no man wins a war if God is not with him so let the isrealites continue calling on their God while the palestines face their own God.

the isrealites are human beings and as such have right to exist so if anyone is saying they must not exist where they are existing, let him/her tell us where they are surposed to exist.

if on the contrary the arugement is based on the call by Iranian president that isreal be wiped out of the surface of the earth, then we are taking the position of God who has the power to take lives though taking lives involves might so let the leaders lead by example.

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what a pathetic cop-out. Even kids would have more rational answers.

You cant stand the heat then leave the kitchen.

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@4him

maybe i have not seen the intellectual personality to engage in reasonable discussion with,just a bunch of misinformed zealots who rely on what was told to them by their parents or the southern influenced media

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4him

your knowledge of history is quite appalling,how sad

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I love how you never answer any of those questions but rather prefer to insult those whose opinion differs from yours. I'd really love to see you one day engage the topic instead of hounding me for my opinions.

Did i insult you or even refer to ur person at any point in this topic?

If i "sound dumb" why dont you just show me those places where i do so with clear evidence to the contrary?

I asked a pertinent question . . . where is all the millions of dollars in aid to Gaza going? Why cant Gazans get food and yet can procure 50 rockets a day?

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@all sensibleposters

Is this David/4him guy really on this planet? You cannot claim that you do not know the answer to these questions. Boy you sure sound dumb sometimes. Even rednecks know better.

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