Climatology - climate science, its types, conditionality, the distribution of the earth's surface and changes over time. Climatology is included in the system of geographical Sciences, since climate is one of the geographical characteristics of terrain, but climate-forming processes are geophysical in nature; therefore, the Climatology is based on the findings of the geophysical Sciences - meteorology, in which it originated and with which it remains closely associated. Climatology is sometimes defined as a geographical part of meteorology.
Factual material about the types of climate and their distribution around the globe, obtained from statistical processing of long series of meteorological observations is the content of climatography. The doctrine of the Genesis of the climate, his physical condition is the subject of physical Climatology, which relies primarily on the perception of heat and water balances of the earth's surface and atmosphere and their role climatopathology.