What countries were conquered by the European states? Which African countries were not colonized that time? Read the information below to learn more about these historical facts.
African countries and their colonial masters
As scientists believe the history of Africa has begun with the creating of a mankind. And here many people came back for the domination. The closeness of the northern sub-region of Africa to Europe has led to the fact that Europeans actively got on the continent in 15-16 centuries. As the African West, it was controlled by Portuguese at the end of the 15th century. They began to sell slaves actively from the local population. The other states from Western Europe always followed the Portuguese: France, Denmark, England, Spain, Holland, and Germany. As a result, the East African countries and the North of Africa have appeared under the European oppression. In total, more than 10% of the African countries were under their power in the middle of the 19th century. However, by the end of this time, the amount of colonization has reached more than 90% of the continent.
What attracted colonialists? First of all, it was a natural wealth:
- wild-growing trees of valuable breeds in a large amount,
- cultivation of various cultures (coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugar cane),
- gemstones (diamonds) and metals (gold),
- Also, there was a slave trade already.
Egypt was involved in the capitalist economy at world level for a long time. After the Suez Canal was discovered, England and France have actively begun to compete who would establish the domination in these lands first. The government of England used a difficult situation in the country, having induced to create the international committee operating the Egyptian budget. As a result, the Englishmen became the Minister of Finance, and the Frenchmen managed public works. Then hard times for the population, which was exhausted from numerous taxes, have begun. Egyptians differently tried to prevent the creation of the foreign colony in Africa. However, over time England has directed troops there to occupy the country. British could occupy Egypt by force and cunning, having made it the colony. France has begun colonization of Africa with Algeria, in which it proved it rights for domination for twenty years. French conquered also Tunisia with long bloodsheds. In these lands, agriculture was developed. Therefore, conquerors organized their own huge estates with extensive lands, in which they forced the Arab peasants to work. The local people were convoked on the construction of facilities for needs of invaders (roads and ports). Though Morocco was a very important object for many European countries, it remained free for a long time thanks to the rivalry of the enemies. Only after strengthening of the power in Tunisia and Algeria, France has begun to subordinate Morocco. Besides these countries, Europeans have begun to occupy South African countries. There British easily pushed aside local tribes on deserted territories. Only several tribes didn't obey for a long time. Diamond mines in colonies of Africa became the centers of settlements. As a result, in the 70th years of the 19th century, the English colonies have occupied the southern coast, without getting deeply into the continent.
The inflow of people to this region is connected with detection of diamonds in the valley. They became the centers of settlements. The cities were created. Created joint-stock companies always used the cheap labor of local population. British had to do some fighting for Zululand, which was included in the Natalia Republic. They completely didn't manage to conquer Transvaal, however, the London convention assumed certain restrictions for the local government. Germany also has begun to occupy the same territories.
England sought to extend the power in southern and in eastern Africa, but France directed the efforts in the continent to colonize a continuous strip between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. As a result, there was a territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Guinea under the French flag. British also owned some West African countries – generally, they were coastal territories of the rivers Gambia, Niger, Volta, and Sahara. Germany managed to conquer only Cameroon and Togo. Belgium has directed forces to the center of the African continent. Thus Congo became its colony. Italy had some lands in the northeast of Africa – huge Somalia and Eritrea. Ethiopia could reflect attack of Italians. As a result, this power has kept the independence of influence of Europeans.
List of African countries, which didn’t become colonies
The early history of the people of Liberia is studied insufficiently. From the second half of the 15 century, on the coast modern Liberia Europeans (Portuguese, British, and French) appeared. They have met here the population, which had a natural economy. In 1821, the group of blacks from the USA with the assistance of the American colonization society was seeking to remove the released slaves from the country and has bought Providence Island at the leaders, and also the site of the continent located near it. Here the settlement was found, and all colonies began to be called Liberia. In 1834-36, there were new settlements. Originally, they were independent of each other. On April 1839, the Commonwealth of the settlements of Liberia, which has united all settlements on basis of the federation, was created. The Republic of Liberia has been proclaimed on July 1847. Ethiopia was also the only country in Africa, which during an era of colonial conquests has managed to defend the independence. Ethiopia is located in Northeastern Africa. It is one of the most ancient states, which has made a big contribution to a world civilization and all its citizens are proud of this circumstance.
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